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Assignment代寫范文-漢語教育體系

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案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇Assignment代寫范文案例分享,范文主要討論了漢語教育體系。文章講述擁有一千多年歷史的漢語教育體系,既具有教育功能,又具有人才選拔的功能,根據其歷史特點可以分為三個明顯的時期
  • 字數:2559 字
  • 預計閱讀時間:8分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇Assignment代寫范文案例分享,題目為Chinese language education System,范文主要討論了漢語教育體系。文章講述擁有一千多年歷史的漢語教育體系,既具有教育功能,又具有人才選拔的功能,根據其歷史特點可以分為三個明顯的時期:古代漢語教育制度,過渡時期和現在。

漢字教育插圖

Chinese education system, covering a history of over 1 000 years , has a function of both education and talent choosing, and can be divided into three obvious periods according to its historical features :Ancient Chinese education system ,the transition period and the present one .

中國教育制度有著一千多年的歷史,具有教育和人才選擇的雙重功能,根據其歷史特征,可以分為三個明顯的時期:古代中國教育制度、轉型時期和現代教育制度。

Ancient Chinese Education System中國古代教育制度

Ancient Chinese education system ,(also called the Imperial Examination System) , built up in the year of 605 in Sui Dynasty and abolished nearly a century ago ,had acted as a main evaluating access to ancient China’s talent choosing during its life span(Haifeng L ,2001).Before 605,when there was no constitutional system built, approaches such as recommendation from the influential and hereditary system were widely used to select the bureaucrats for the government .Obviously ,it means the later generation ,even with limited talent, could still enjoy official treatment without any contribution. As a result ,a large quantity of financial expenses of  the governing class did not get deserved payback of a better administration from the excellent guys ;on the contrast , potential corruption and incapability made a messy bureaucracy and a social disorder .

中國古代教育制度(又稱科舉制度)建立于隋朝605年,在近一個世紀前被廢除,是中國古代人一生擇才的主要評價途徑(海豐L,2001),在選拔官吏時,廣泛采用了有影響的世襲制推薦等辦法,顯然,這意味著后人即使才華橫溢,也可以毫無貢獻地享受官職待遇。結果,統治階級的大量財政開支并沒有從優秀的人那里得到更好的管理所應得的回報;相反,潛在的腐敗和無能使官僚機構混亂,社會混亂。

In 605,emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty then ,established the Imperial Competictive Examination ,which is also called the Ancient Chinese education system today , and brought a halt to such a situation to some degree (Xiong,2006). According to this system, people participating in this test hold by the Ministry of Education are supposed to write a paper to show his or her capability on the assigned topic; Finally ,the Ministry of education picked out a few winners entirely according to their score based on what they had written previously . With a measurable and relatively credible evaluation  standard , this kind of system had acted as a major method for the government to recognize the capable and then put them in the important position until September 2nd ,1905,when Qing Dynasty declared its abolishment . During its life span , a variety of efforts were made to make it more scientific and effective ,but the fact that it chooses the qualified talents through a mere dissertation has never been changed .

公元605年,隋煬帝建立了科舉考試制度,也就是今天的中國古代教育制度,并在一定程度上制止了這種局面(熊,2006)。按照這一制度,參加由教育部舉辦的這次考試的人應該寫一篇論文來展示自己在指定題目上的能力;最后,教育部根據他們之前的成績,完全根據他們的成績挑選出一些獲獎者。直到1905年9月2日清朝宣布廢除這一制度,這種制度以一種可衡量的、相對可信的評價標準,成為政府承認能人并將其置于重要地位的主要手段。在它的生命周期中,為了使它更科學、更有效,人們做了各種努力,但僅僅通過一篇論文就可以選拔出合格人才的事實從未改變。

 Far-reaching as it is ,it finally failed to avoid the fate of going all into pieces . Seen from a objective view ,it is off to reasonability more or less. A  paper should not have had played such a large part in talent choosing ;after all ,an outstanding talent in writing does not necessarily equal an excellence in administration and severing the civilians and the lord. What is more ,the examinees had no freedom choosing their own writing style ,even the words or viewpoints they wanted to quote(the constitution put a limitation of the books available and the writing form ), let alone their own perspectives. However, these factors did not hold back the step of the masses, since official career gained from this test appeared nearly a peerless approach for ordinary people to get rid of poverty and low-class status and pursue a promising future. As a result, to some extent ,this system barely fell to be a motivation of seeking for  fame and fortune and  picked out geniuses, parts of whom showed an advantage  on machine-made essay writing field.

Transition Period

Then ,in 1919, New Culture Movement filled the shoes of Ancient Chinese education system and flagged a brand-new educational concept of “Democracy(about civil rights ) and Science “,put forward by Luxun ,Hushi ,Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao (all of them were under the influence of western culture ), the leaders of this movement(Schwarcz V,1986).The soul of this new education concept is ”Being objective ,being creative and being flexible and being versatile ”,compared to the traditional regulation on writing. In more detail ,people were encouraged to express their sincere standpoints and emotions without the worry of being unrecognized rather than begging for the favor of the ruling class through fake compliments. Additionally ,they broke through the unreasonable limitation that only the assigned books are available to write a paper in a fixed writing style ,and encouraged it in a opposite viewpoint (a reflection was that students began to be sent to foreign countries to have a better study ). During this period ,an obvious character was that western thoughts and standpoints played the role of a guide in its revolution .

Since that movement, classical Chinese writing and those narrow disciplines gradually faded away from China’s  stage.

The present Chinese Education System

As for Present Chinese education system, it is regarded to originate from 1952   ,a couple of years behind the foundation of People’s  Republic of China in 1949 , and has been widely used so far (Harvard University Press, 1968.).Referring to present education system, National Entrance Examination, which was regarded as the most attractive mark and  the  relatively fairest approach ever  , is a unavoidable issue. As is known to the public ,on June 7th and June 8th every year ,millions of senior high school students all over China are supposed to take this test on their academic subjects to compete for the rights of going to universities (Shirk S L,1979). And usually the higher score the examinee gets ,the better university he or she  may enter .

During the past several tens of years ,exploration to a more effective and more scientific evaluation system has never ceased its step ,and just like explorations in many other fields, mistakes did happen at times .In 1965,Mao Zedong ,the first chairman of People’s  Republic of China ,launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution; consequently ,causing the end of  National Entrance Examination which had lasted for 14 years(Shenkar O& Ronen S 1987).The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, aiming at defend the Communist Party from being smirched by the increasing capitalism initially ,went out of control and eventually developed to be a 10-year-long political disaster (Bian Y,et,2001). So devastating was it that education, production and many social normal activities fell into disorder or even an absolute abeyance ,but not the suppress against the capitalist class in their view .Many innocent intelligentsias, including many encyclopedic professors, were unilaterally classified as the capitalists and were sent  into prison or persecuted to death as political threat .

Not until the year of 1977 did the universities stopped to enroll new students again .And it is not hard to imagine how harshly the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution had treated to National Entrance Examination, to national talent choosing and cultivating and to Chinese social overall development( Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.). Up to now ,National Entrance Examination system has made constant progress during the past 37 years  after its back to life ;as a example of which ,in order to cultivate specialists swiftly ,the system of Branch of Art and Science has been widely adopted in Chinese mainland since 1977 (Davey G, et,2007). As volume of data suggests , more reasons and more humanistic care has been taken into consideration to provide a more advanced fairness and justness due to regional education and economy gap .Truly ,it offers a way for plenty of poor mountain village students to change their fate through efforts and plays an irreplaceable role in picking out the intelligent and hard-working ,thus contributing to national comprehensive development. 

Hard as it tries, it is still far from perfection .There is no doubt that it selects people with higher scores ,equaling to higher learning capacity to some extent ,but things become quite different in the university  .That hard-working and intelligent students turn to endless computer games and Valentines  from school subjects has been widely seen in part of Chinese advanced academies, especially nowadays .As a saying goes “where there is fire ,there is smoke ” ,deep-seated problem must exist in present education system .

Given a second view, the education system will expose its shortcoming: When all goes to all ,it is just a test however much it means to the examinees . As talent choosing approaches are almost under the monopolization of National Entrance Examination ,it feels like a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to turn the tide against their inborn poverty and low social status. For that reason ,both the examinees and their families spare no efforts to work from homework to homework, and from books to books ,to compete for a piece of advantage in this examination .Actually ,lots of middle school students are not so pleased to study and live in such tight nerves, but the high expectations from their  parents, their  schools and the society make them have no choice but to work hard all day  from 6:00 in the morning to even deep night(of course ,exceptions do exist ).That is to say, for some students , the quality of being hard-working is just an outcome of no alternatives. In addition ,many parents and teachers tell a well-meaning lie(some of them think this way indeed ) that pressure and discomfort will not last a second longer after the accomplishment of this examination and universities will be filled with brand-new comfortable life . Above all ,it is not so hard to throw light on students’  drastic fall in universities .

Then some links with the education system emerge if more cases in reality are taken into consideration .In April ,2013, Fudan poisoning case shock the people all over China like the sun rising from the south( LI Y ,et,2013).People could hardly believe that Lin Senhao ,a postgraduate in Fudan University ,one of the best universities in China ,should poison his roommate without too much mercy. It is really beyond imagination that daily incidents could accumulate so much as that hatred ,bloody enough to push a social elite to the cliff of committing a crime at the cost of precious lives.  The whole nation got puzzled and tried to think over the root of this evil .Finally ,the mainstream viewpoint from the media and the Netizens insisted  that it was a reflection of Chinese educational flaws ,as the education system lay overmuch attention to academic scores and ignore students’ comprehensive development . Truly ,compared to the situation a few tens years ago ,an increasing number of cases of this kind is reported now and then ,such as students’ bad manners on the bus ,treating the elderly rudely and so on.

Conclusion

It is never credible to throw light on complicated Chinese educational system with one word or two. But without doubt ,it is such a system with the existence of both glitter and tough problems to be settled.  

Work cited

Bian Y, Shu X, Logan J R. Communist Party membership and regime dynamics in China[J]. Social Forces, 2001, 79(3): 805-841.

China's great proletarian Cultural Revolution: master narratives and post-Mao counternarratives[M]. Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.

Davey G, De Lian C, Higgins L. The university entrance examination system in China[J]. Journal of further and Higher Education, 2007, 31(4): 385-396.

Haifeng L. A New Probe into the Influence of the Chinese Imperial Examination System [J][J]. Social Sciences In China, 2001, 5: 018.

LI Y, ZHANG Z, SUN P. Case-only Study on the Relationship Between Genetic Polymorphisms in XPD and Risk of Occupational Chronic Benzene Poisoning[J]. Practical Preventive Medicine, 2013, 5: 002.

Schwarcz V. The Chinese enlightenment: intellectuals and the legacy of the May Fourth movement of 1919[M]. Univ of California Press, 1986.

Shirk S L. Educational reform and political backlash: Recent changes in Chinese educational policy[J]. Comparative Education Review, 1979: 183-217.

Shenkar O, Ronen S. Structure and importance of work goals among managers in the People's Republic of China[J]. Academy of Management Journal, 1987, 30(3): 564-576.

The criminal process in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1963: an introduction[M]. Harvard University Press, 1968.

Xiong, V. C. (2006). Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty: His life, times, and legacy. SUNY Press.

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