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Assignment代寫范文-Pruitt-Igoe Community

發布時間:2022-04-22 16:37:26 閱讀:349

案例簡介

  • 作者:博遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇公共政策Assignment代寫范文,本文通過對普魯特-伊戈社區的承租人、當局和設計師的介紹,指出設計師過于關注他的建筑師同伴,而對居民關注太少。
  • 字數:1576 字
  • 預計閱讀時間:4分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇公共政策Assignment代寫范文,題目為:Pruitt-Igoe Community,本文通過對普魯特-伊戈社區的承租人、當局和設計師的介紹,指出設計師過于關注他的建筑師同伴,而對居民關注太少。

普魯特-伊戈社區

In the name of urban renewal, large-scale removal of slums in cities and the construction of high-level affordable housing were going on in the 20th century America. Many projects eventually became areas of poverty, high crime rates, and chaotic environment. Among them, the Pruitt-Igoe community in St. Louis Missouri is a representative case. The reason for the failure of a large number of public housing projects in the United States was once thought to be a problem with the architectural design of these houses. Through the introduction of the Pruitt-Igoe community's renters, authorities, and designers, this paper points out that the designer had focused too much on his fellow architects and too little on the residents. Urban planning should not only design affordable housing communities in terms of spatial forms and architectural forms, but also examine how public housing planning and construction can be combined with good social and ecological development to promote community harmony.

在20世紀的美國,以城市更新的名義,大規模拆除城市中的貧民窟,建造高級經濟適用房。許多項目最終成為貧困、高犯罪率和混亂環境的地區。其中,密蘇里州圣路易斯的普魯特-伊戈社區就是一個典型案例。美國大量公共住房項目失敗的原因一度被認為是這些房屋的建筑設計問題。本文通過介紹普魯特-伊戈社區的租客、當局和設計師,指出設計師過于關注他的建筑師同伴,而對居民關注太少。城市規劃不僅要從空間形式和建筑形式上設計經濟適用房社區,還要研究如何將公共住房規劃和建設與良好的社會和生態發展相結合,促進社區和諧。

Renters of the Pruitt-Igoe community were mainly the working-class and submerged middle-class in the city. During the 20th century, major cities in the United States experienced rapid industrialization. The slums in urban centers often had high living densities and poor environments, and are considered to be ugly scars in the city. Public Housing was invested and built by the government and targeted low- and middle-income people to solve the housing problems of low-income groups in the city. Another purpose of public housing construction is to attract the middle class to live in the city center, so as to restore the vitality of the urban center area. Yamasaki adopted a uniform layout method in the general plan layout under the limitation of the number of buildings. The purpose of not stopping elevators at all floors (only the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth floors) is to promote the socializing of residents in high-rise buildings. Setting up elevators to stop at only specific floors can increase the chances of meeting and communicating with neighbors and establish a good neighborhood relationship. Public service facilities such as galleries, laundry rooms and storage rooms have been designed on the floor where the elevators are parked, creating a community space for public communication and activities. This can turn each building in a residential area into a life-style community with close neighborhoods.

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a specialized agency responsible for the construction and management of public housing. From the perspective of saving construction funds, HUD required all 33 buildings of the project to have 11 floors. During the construction of the Pruitt-Igoe community, HUD strictly controlled the cost. Many convenience facilities (such as children's playgrounds, green areas, and public toilets on the ground floor) that were designed to promote linkages and activities among residents were canceled, and materials for building public facilities were also based on the lowest standard. After the completion of the community, a large number of outdoor public facilities in the original program design to promote neighborhood communication were not implemented at all. Only the most basic two innovative designs were still completed. In 1955, 33 buildings in the Pruitt-Igoe community were completed. Although the budget was continuously controlled during construction, the total cost was still 60% higher than the initial budget. After its completion, the Pruitt-Igoe community has become the tallest building complex in the region, and it is completely different from the surrounding architectural styles. Yamasaki's design uses a very pure modernist architectural style. The facade is simple, unadorned, functional, and uniform. The large-scale high-rise buildings and the surrounding low-rise buildings have formed a huge contrast in image, which has become one of the reasons why the design of the Pruitt-Igoe community was widely criticized in the future.

Avant-grand architects of social housing in western Europe were already working on similar projects, and Yamasaki wanted to follow their steps and create something even better. Initially, part of the architectural community though very highly of Yamasaki’s work. However, that was before everything fell apart and the neighborhood deteriorated. The later demolition of the Pruitt-Igoe community was considered by the architecture community as a sign of the decline of modernism. Architects nowadays believe that the Pruitt-Igoe community has concentrated on the shortcomings of modernist architectural styles: uniform, monotonous and indifferent, lack of human touch. As time goes by, people think of the reason why the Pruitt-Igoe community was demolished, and generally think that the irrationality of the architectural design resulted in the failure of the Pruitt-Igoe community. Oscar Newman detailed analysis of architectural design issues in the Pruitt-Igoe community in his Creating Defensible Space. The problems include lack of protection and defense in the public promenade space. It was in an unsupervised state, and it was easy to induce criminal events. The entrance to the community's internal buildings was facing a large area of public activity, so anyone could freely enter the buildings, including criminals who attacked the tenants in the elevators. This further deepens the impression that architectural design issues have caused the decline of the Pruitt-Igoe community, but essentially, it was Yamasaki’s failure to think from the authorities and the renters’ perspectives.

In conclusion, Minoru Yamasaki satisfied the architect the most in the design, at least the ones in his own era. He has failed to approach the project from a more practical perspective, failing to consider the profound effect of government budget and neighborhood management issues. The Pruitt-Igoe residential area is a design where functionalism went to extremes. In fact, European countries and US built a large number of such buildings in the 1950s and 1960s, causing widespread social problems. The destruction of Pruitt-Igoe residential area became a watershed between modernism and postmodernism. This event reminds every designer that the quality of design depends not only on the form of design, but also on the users, supervisors, and sponsors. While users are always the top priority for designers, failing to balance user needs with financing and regulation would only lead to failed projects.

總之,山崎實實在設計上最讓建筑師滿意,至少是在他自己的時代。他未能從更實際的角度來看待這個項目,未能考慮到政府預算和社區管理問題的深遠影響。普魯特伊戈住宅區是一個功能主義走向極端的設計。事實上,歐洲國家和美國在20世紀50年代和60年代建造了大量此類建筑,造成了廣泛的社會問題。普魯特·伊戈住宅區的破壞成為現代主義和后現代主義之間的分水嶺。本次活動提醒每一位設計師,設計的質量不僅取決于設計的形式,還取決于用戶、主管和贊助商。雖然用戶始終是設計師的首要任務,但如果不能在用戶需求與融資和監管之間取得平衡,只會導致項目失敗。

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