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Assignment代寫范文-勞動幸福的價值論

發布時間:2020-04-05 14:58:39 閱讀:1536

案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇優秀的Assignment代寫范文,主要討論了勞動幸福的價值論。勞動幸福作為一個價值判斷,是價值的實踐特質必然引出的結論。
  • 字數:4312 字
  • 預計閱讀時間:14分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇優秀的Assignment代寫范文,題目為:The axiology of labor happiness,主要討論了勞動幸福的價值論。勞動幸福作為一個價值判斷,是價值的實踐特質必然引出的結論。堅持馬克思主義的價值理念,無論從理論上還是從實踐上,必然主張勞動幸福論。因為在價值論視域中,人類勞動必然產生成果,以滿足人生存和發展的物質與精神的需要。勞動是人的自由自覺的活動,人在這一過程中認識世界、認識勞動對象,積累各式各樣的生存智慧,并使之得到檢驗和發展。

What is value? This is the first question that comes up in the discussion of value. Reviewing the classic works of Marx and Engels, we can see that the concept of value has different understandings in economics and philosophy. The "value" of philosophy is a category that marks the relationship between subject and object in the process of practice, which reflects the degree to which the object satisfies the needs of the subject. Therefore, the value of economics and the value of philosophy are different from each other in terms of objects, fields and problems to be solved and explained. The value mentioned in this paper naturally refers to the value in the philosophical sense of Marx.

什么是價值?這是價值討論中出現的第一個問題?;仡欛R克思恩格斯的經典著作,我們可以看到,價值觀在經濟學和哲學上有著不同的理解。哲學的“價值”是一個標志著實踐過程中主體與客體關系的范疇,它反映了客體滿足主體需要的程度。因此,經濟學的價值與哲學的價值在要解決和解釋的對象、領域和問題上是不同的。本文所提到的價值自然是指馬克思哲學意義上的價值。

The main purpose of philosophical thinking is to think about the reality and the due of the world. The former is to solve the problem of what the world is, while the latter is to solve the problem of what the world should be. In "the theses on feuerbach", Marx clearly pointed out the fundamental difference between old and new philosophical thinking. He said: "the whole social life is practical in nature. Whatever leads theory to mysticism can be reasonably solved in human practice and in the understanding of this practice." This also reveals the root meaning of practice to axiology. From this, formed the three characteristics of marxist value category.

哲學思維的主要目的是思考世界的現實與應有。前者是解決世界是什么的問題,后者是解決世界應該是什么的問題。在《關于費爾巴哈的論文》中,馬克思明確指出了新舊哲學思想的根本區別。他說:“整個社會生活在本質上是實用的。無論是什么導致了理論到神秘主義,都可以在人類實踐和對這種實踐的理解中得到合理的解決。”這也揭示了實踐到價值論的根本意義。由此,形成了馬克思主義價值范疇的三大特征。

Professor li deshun, a famous scholar of axiology in China, once pointed out that, "in the research and application of value philosophy at home and abroad, two theories and their ways of thinking once occupied a dominant position. According to the subjective theory, value is, after all, the existence and product of a certain spirit, and value only occurs and exists in people's subjective purport and idea. The other is the object theory of value represented by the entity-attribute theory. Objectivism emphasizes that 'many different things are inherently good or bad' and specifically denies any connection between value and human body and mind. ... There are two kinds of object theory: entity theory and attribute theory. Among them, the attribute theory seems to be more convincing, so it is still widely influential." Here, both the subjective theory and the object theory of value have a common defect: they neglect the basic role of practice in value. Therefore, neither fully recognizes the root meaning of people's life practice to value thinking. First of all, from the perspective of the generation of value thinking, value thinking does not happen for no reason. It does not happen only in people's subjective consciousness, as the subjectivist thinks, nor does it happen as the object-theorist thinks, it is the existence of things, and the value expresses the meaning of things to people. This meaning is generated in human practice. As Lenin put it: "the whole of human practice must be included in the complete 'definition' of things, as the criterion of truth, and as the actual determiner of the thing's relation to that point which man wants it to be." This tells us that the establishment of the relationship between things and people's needs, that is, the establishment of the value relationship, is dependent on practice. Secondly, from the perspective of the relationship between cognitive activities and value thinking, value thinking is the unique way of life and activity. Because, one as a product of long-term evolution in nature, its activities are related to the purpose, the perceptual activity or practice object of objective condition and the external environment, although the regulation with the premise of human practice activity, means and possibility, but the inside dimensions of the person or people to meet the expectations of the purpose, people and the result of the activities of the expected value such as thinking, is embedded in the practical activities of man, that is reflected the people's "targeted" characteristic of the activity. Thirdly, whether value thinking is correct is also tested by practice. As some scholars have pointed out, "whether value thinking really reflects the mode, procedure, method, rule and so on of life practice is not a question of pure theory, but a question of practice. Only by returning to the life practice of the subject, feeding it back to life and acting on the concrete practice of 'changing the world', can people compare and verify it in the concrete historical life practice, and correct all the thinking distortions and errors caused by abstraction, subjectivity and arrogance." This shows that value thinking is an intrinsic component of people's cognition of things, and value thinking is infiltrated in the nature, structure, mode, process and result of practice. The successful practice not only tests the correctness of cognitive achievements, but also verifies the right and wrong value thinking. In the view of marxist philosophy, practice is the way of human existence and life form. Practice is not only the form of creating wealth, but also the process of realizing value thinking. The value of life and the value of people are not generated automatically by the subject itself, nor are they possessed by the object itself, but are reflected in the objectification activities of the subject and realized in the practical relationship between people and objects. In practice, human subjectivity is constantly generated, human ability is constantly enhanced, human quality is constantly improved, and human needs are constantly met. Successful practice is the result of double correct knowledge of truth and value. This situation has been clearly reflected in the development history of industrial and agricultural production and the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

中國著名價值論學者李德順教授曾指出,“在國內外價值哲學的研究與應用中,兩種理論及其思維方式一度占據主導地位。根據主觀理論,價值畢竟是某種精神的存在和產物,價值只存在于人的主觀意旨和觀念中。另一種是實體屬性理論所代表的價值客體論??陀^主義強調“許多不同的事物本質上是好的或壞的”,并明確否認價值與人的身心之間的任何聯系。……對象論有實體論和屬性論兩種。其中,屬性理論似乎更具說服力,因此它仍然具有廣泛的影響。”在這里,主觀價值理論和客體價值理論都有一個共同的缺陷:它們忽視了實踐在價值中的基本作用。因此,二者都沒有充分認識到人的生活實踐對價值思維的根本意義。首先,從價值思維產生的角度來看,價值思維不是無緣無故發生的。它不僅發生在人的主觀意識中,如主觀主義者所想,也不發生在客體理論家所想,它是事物的存在,價值向人表達事物的意義。這一意義是在人類實踐中產生的。正如列寧所說:“人的整個實踐必須包括在事物的完全‘定義’中,作為真理的標準,作為事物與人所希望的那一點關系的實際決定者。”這告訴我們,事物與人們的需求,即價值關系的建立,依賴于實踐。其次,從認知活動與價值思維的關系來看,價值思維是生命與活動的獨特方式。因為,一個人作為自然界長期進化的產物,其活動與目的、客觀條件下的感性活動或實踐對象以及外部環境有關,雖然規則具有人類實踐活動的前提、手段和可能性,但是人或人的內在維度達到預期的目的、人和活動結果等預期價值的思維,是嵌入人的實踐活動中的,體現了人們活動的“針對性”特征。第三,通過實踐檢驗價值思維是否正確。正如一些學者所指出的,“價值思維是否真正反映了生活實踐的方式、程序、方法、規律等,不是單純的理論問題,而是實踐問題。只有回歸主體的生活實踐,回歸生活,作用于“改變世界”的具體實踐,人們才能在具體的歷史生活實踐中對其進行比較和驗證,糾正抽象、主觀性導致的一切思維扭曲和錯誤。這表明價值思維是人對事物認識的內在組成部分,價值思維滲透到實踐的本質、結構、方式、過程和結果中。成功的實踐不僅檢驗了認知成就的正確性,而且驗證了價值思維的正確性和錯誤性。馬克思主義哲學認為,實踐是人的生存方式和生命形式。實踐不僅是創造財富的形式,也是實現價值思維的過程。生命的價值和人的價值不是由主體本身自動產生的,也不是由客體本身所占有的,而是反映在主體的客體化活動中,體現在人與客體的實際關系中。在實踐中,人的主體性不斷產生,人的能力不斷增強,人的素質不斷提高,人的需要不斷得到滿足。成功的實踐是正確認識真理和價值的雙重結果。這一情況在工農業生產發展史和中國特色社會主義建設中得到了明確反映。

When we overcome the subjective value on theory and object theory, on the basis of the practice thinking on value of things, can be found that displayed on value relationship, a relationship between the object and the subject of "objective activity", as the main body to make in practice of the generated object can meet the requirements of certain aspects of the subject, which make it has value to the body. In this process, "objective activity" is the activity of establishing relations, without which "relationship" between subject and object is of no value at all. This "relationship", without practice, cannot be generated. Here, it should be emphasized that relational thinking and entity thinking are very different. Since the early philosophical thinking of human beings all attempted to seek the beginning or origin of the world, the substantial thinking has a long history. Entity thinking thinks that "the world" is composed of some kind of smallest and most basic unit with mass. Prior to Lenin's definition of "matter" as objective reality, old materialism was typical of adhering to "substantial thinking". Relational thinking, on the other hand, is a judgment on whether the object is suitable or consistent with the purpose, interests and needs of the subject when people establish a specific subject-object relationship with the object in practice. This "relational thinking" based on the subject and object has social reality, historicity and comprehensiveness. It requires the analysis of the current or long-term significance of the existence and nature of the object in the realistic social and historical relationship between the subject and the object, in the comprehensive relationship between man and the world, and in the dynamic development of the contradictory movement of the subject and object. It can be seen that the practical and relational characteristics of value are inseparable. It is precisely this dialectical relationship between subject and object based on practice that reveals the connection between subject measure and value phenomenon, thus making various value and meaning evaluation come into being. Only when we understand the value of "relational thinking" in the sense of the connection between object and subject can we get rid of the bias of "substantive thinking" and subjectivism and objectivism and achieve the value thinking in line with the actual situation. Generally speaking, relational thinking consists of two basic conditions: positive and negative. The positive relation is that through practice, the object meets the needs of the subject and forms the positive value. The negative relation is that in practice, the object negates and subverts the needs of the subject and forms negative value. In this respect, the most typical example is the completely different results of labor and alienated labor. The former is the workers feel happy, while the latter is the workers suffer exploitation and humiliation.

"Only by fully revealing and maintaining people's subject status can we grasp the essence of the problem." Because the content affirmed by the concept of "value" is that the existence, function and change of the object are suitable, close or consistent with certain needs and development of the subject. Thus it can be seen that whether there is value or not is to the subject and affirms a subjective fact. This kind of human nature is different from person to person, because people are specific and varied, while value thinking is a kind of thinking related to the subject's self. As a thinking to reflect on the relationship between oneself and the objective world, it is a sign of people's self-knowledge level and their own development. In class society, all kinds of evaluations are marked with class and thus have a strong ideological attribute. The biggest difference between value thinking and people's habit of objectivism thinking lies in that value thinking is inseparable from people. On the one hand, value thinking varies from person to person, which is a multi-dimensional and individualized non-identical thinking. On the other hand, due to the concreteness and historicity of people's social existence, people's value thinking is also concrete, historical and multi-dimensional. This seemingly clear theory is often misinterpreted when referring to current "environmental problems" and "ecological problems". In order to emphasize the importance of "environment" and "nature", some people even advocate "the integration of nature and man", holding that only by treating "human" and "nature" as "dual subjects", can the thinking obstacles behind "environmental problems" be theoretically solved. This is the misunderstanding of the subjectivity of value thinking. Because, left the human nature, even if it "frozen in one thousand" or "monstrous flood", is it doesn't matter, today is the "environment" as a problem, can meet the needs of the body and the environment, from the environment to meet for a long time and meets the needs of the main body of the forever, from the people and the development of health, left on the main body care, these problems can't set up as a problem. The sustainable development of environment is not only for the environment itself, but also for the sustainable development of people. Therefore, the object and the subject should not be equated because of the environmental problems, but the raising of the environmental problems itself should be regarded as a new height of the development of the subject. Because optimizing the environment itself is for the better and healthier development of human beings. As a scholar said, "' man is the center of man's world and man is the center of man himself. 'this is a unique and inevitable phenomenon of' egocentrism '." Therefore, the approach, process and level of value thinking is actually the standard of self-understanding level of human being as the value subject, and also the symbol of the development level of the subject itself.

In a word, in the field of value, people occupy the dominant position. All values are judged by human's subjective standard and people-oriented. We talk about value in the sense of the connection between things and people in practice. In the specific process of social history, with the development of social productivity, people's social needs have changed, and the evaluation scale of the same thing has also changed.

In order to illustrate the theme, first of all, the concept of "happiness" is briefly explained: happiness is for people, animals and their lives are directly the same, their life activities are themselves, and people are different, happiness is exclusive to the concept of people. For man belongs to nature, is subject to it, and is distinguished from it; Man can separate himself from the object in his consciousness, thus separating himself from nature and transcending nature. Marx said in the economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844, "man not only makes himself double mentally as he does in consciousness, but also makes himself double actively and realistically, so as to visualize himself in the world he created." This tells us that people's life has the duality of objective objects and subjective feelings, which also determines the duality of happiness. "In Marx's view, human happiness is the result and experience of people's active and realistic realization of their own duality, and the direct result and feeling of people in their created world." This shows that happiness is not only subjective psychological experience, but also rooted in the objective object, happiness is the unity of subjectivity and objectivity. Marx once said: "the most beautiful music is meaningless to the ear without music sense." It shows the relationship between objective objects and psychological experience, which is a good illustration of the duality of happiness. Here, "the most beautiful music" is the primary and root sex, while the feeling of music is the secondary sex, the psychological response to the former, which is different from person to person.

As a value judgment, labor happiness is an inevitable conclusion drawn from the practical characteristics of value, that is to say, adhering to the marxist value concept, no matter theoretically or practically, it is inevitable to advocate labor happiness theory. Because in the view of axiology, human labor inevitably produces three major results to meet the material and spiritual needs of human survival and development. First of all, labor is man's way of life. Labor creates man, and man lives by it for generations. As an objective activity, labor process is the process of human's essential power acting on the object of labor, thus creating the material life materials needed for human survival, namely material wealth. This process, that is, the material needs of people to meet the formation of value process. Secondly, labor is a free and conscious activity of human beings. In this process, people know the world and the objects of labor, accumulate various kinds of survival wisdom, and make it tested and developed. Labor makes people confirm the growth of their own essential power, understand the meaning of their lives, this process, is also the spiritual needs of people to meet the formation of value process. Thirdly, labor not only develops the physical strength and intelligence of human beings, but also enables people to realize themselves in practice through "objectification activities", and to reflect on themselves in the world created by their own labor, thus realizing the development of human beings themselves. Not only the individual life of workers can be enriched and grown, but also the human kind of life can be extended for generations, so that people can get a sense of pleasure and pride only created by the subject. These three achievements are not only born of labor, but also develop with the improvement of labor level. It goes without saying that there is an inevitable link between work and happiness. Here it needs to be pointed out that the above mentioned labor in the philosophical level is the "overall" concept of labor, which not only refers to physical labor, but also refers to mental labor, including art, management, scientific research and other forms of mental labor. Here, all forms of labor are equal, because they are necessary for the development of a healthy society. If labor as "objectification activity" mainly refers to physical labor that creates material wealth, then "accumulation of living wisdom", "meeting spiritual needs", "understanding the world", "realizing oneself" and "looking back on oneself" are all synonyms of various mental labor. The diversity of forms of labor is consistent with the diversity of forms of practice. In the past, for a long time, people only lifted the form of physical labor to the highest status and devalued other forms of labor, which is a misunderstanding of the marxist concept of practice and the concept of labor. Contemporary rubbings have shown that in the process of human evolution, alone to walk upright, hands and feet, division of labor, language, without the development of human brain in labor, namely original wisdom accumulated in the original labor, there will be no tool making and improvement, will not produce the product of mental activity, such as the original paintings wouldn't apes evolved as primitive, primitive man won't evolution for modern people. Therefore, as a philosophical category of labor, with the greatest generality and universality.

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