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Assignment代寫范文-失敗在成功中的作用

發布時間:2020-08-04 15:27:17 閱讀:1305

案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇Assignment代寫范文,這篇文章講述的是失敗在成功設計中的作用,不是在討論失敗如何幫助工程師進行設計,而是失敗對理解工程本身的重要性。
  • 字數:1874 字
  • 預計閱讀時間:6分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇Assignment代寫范文,題目為The role of failure in successful design,這篇文章講述的是失敗在成功設計中的作用,不是在討論失敗如何幫助工程師進行設計,而是失敗對理解工程本身的重要性。

Assignment代寫范文

The role of failure in successful design

The book To Engineer is Human, The Role of Failure in Successful Design, by Henri Petroski, is not a discussion on how failures help engineers in their designs, but the significance of failure in the understanding of engineering itself. Also, the book argues that to engineer is human, which translates to all humans are engineers, or problem solvers in their own areas. Such an interpretation makes the book relevant not only to the engineering profession, but also the general public. in addition, the author makes extensive amount of references to literature, culture, psychology and society, making is much less boring for the readers. In this review, an introduction of the central theme of the book will come first, followed by evaluations of the two major claims made by the author. Lastly, how these two claims combine to form an effective argument will be analyzed.

亨利·彼得羅斯基(Henri Petroski)的《工程師是人,失敗在成功設計中的作用》一書,不是討論失敗如何幫助工程師進行設計,而是失敗對理解工程本身的意義。此外,這本書還認為,工程師就是人,也就是說,所有人都是工程師,或者在他們自己的領域里解決問題的人。這樣的解釋使得這本書不僅與工程專業有關,而且與普通大眾有關。此外,作者還大量參考了文學、文化、心理和社會等方面的內容,使讀者不再感到無聊。在這篇評論中,首先介紹這本書的中心主題,然后對作者提出的兩個主要主張進行評價。最后,將分析這兩種主張如何結合起來形成有效的論據。

The entire book is built around the significance of design failure in engineering success. As a professor of engineering and history, the author knows not only the cases of historic engineering failures, but also the significance of them in the future designs. In the book, Petroski explained cases of bridge collapses, plane crashes and building failures to the readers. There aren’t any technical details trying to figure out where the problem was, but rather an observation of how did the engineers respond to the failures. Failures, according to the author, have become opportunities for engineers to find the weak link in their design that was unnoticed before. By stating that to engineer is human, the application of failures works not only for engineers, but for all those who encounter failures in their lives. Moreover, in the analyzation and study of failures, not only technical problems are solved, a more profound understanding of engineering itself would be established. Without failure, not necessarily in reality, but on paper as well, a person can never become a “real” engineer.

亨利·彼得羅斯基(Henri Petroski)的《工程師是人,失敗在成功設計中的作用》一書,不是討論失敗如何幫助工程師進行設計,而是失敗對理解工程本身的意義。此外,這本書還認為,工程師就是人,也就是說,所有人都是工程師,或者在他們自己的領域里解決問題的人。這樣的解釋使得這本書不僅與工程專業有關,而且與普通大眾有關。此外,作者還大量參考了文學、文化、心理和社會等方面的內容,使讀者不再感到無聊。在這篇評論中,首先介紹這本書的中心主題,然后對作者提出的兩個主要主張進行評價。最后,將分析這兩種主張如何結合起來形成有效的論據。

The author is successful in his argument that failure is one of the most important component in the learning process. The engineer group is commonly considered the type of people with high intellectual abilities. However, the truth is, engineers are only human, who’s nature is to find solutions to problems. The major difference is that engineers are constantly seeking for the optimum, or compromise between the ideal and the restrictions from the reality, which requires extensive amounts of learning. While learning from the successes of the others provide a form of guideline for engineers to follow, the cases of successes are extremely constrained. An engineer who have succeeded in one project cannot produce the same design in a different location without modifications, which become potential sources of failure. In comparison, learning from the failure for an engineer serve as reminders for him or her in future designs. Failures are more specific than successes, which incorporate the design characteristics and the environmental factor. Therefore, an engineer who is experienced with failures are more likely to succeed.

作者成功地論證了失敗是學習過程中最重要的組成部分之一。工程師群體通常被認為是具有高智力的人。然而,事實是,工程師只是人,誰的本性是找到解決問題的辦法。主要的區別在于,工程師們總是在不斷地尋求最優,或者在理想和現實的限制之間尋求折衷,這需要大量的學習。雖然從他人的成功中學習為工程師提供了一種遵循的指導,但成功的案例卻受到極大的限制。在一個項目中取得成功的工程師不可能在不同的位置進行相同的設計而不進行修改,這將成為潛在的失敗源。相比之下,從失敗中吸取教訓對于一個工程師來說就是在將來的設計中提醒他或她。失敗比成功更具體,成功包含了設計特點和環境因素。因此,一個有失敗經驗的工程師更有可能成功。

Throughout the book, Petroski emphasizes on the importance of the human touch in engineering, that no machine or computer would be able to simulate. While the development of computer and software has made the life of engineers much easier. Petroski views the trend as a dangerous sign. He believes that engineers should stay close to the real-life experiences as much as possible, for it is the accumulation of such experiences that help engineers ask the right questions. When the engineers are more and more dependent on computers, they become farther from understanding the project in a comprehensive way. As a bridge between science and the daily life applications for the public, engineer need to find their inspirations from not only the scientific side, but also from the society, people, culture, history, and art. As a book that include areas of construction engineering, poetry and literature at the same time, Petroski has succeeded in expanding the imagination of the readers, especially engineers.

Petroski also believes that based on the experiences of failure and the persistence of the human factors, engineers can take control of their project and reduce the excessive safety considerations. The more knowledge of failure they possess, the more confident engineers would be. Even the most capable engineers are not able to consider all possible failure cases in their design. Before 911, it was hardly imagined that a skyscraper would collapse due to human factors. After the incident, new standards of design were proposed to counter the factor of terrorism attacks. However, such standards are still not enough to simulate the complex reality. Hence the factor of safety was introduced to the engineering practice to take care of the unknown and increase the level of safety (Ching, 2009). The factor of safety is often referred to as the “factor of ignorance”, because it provides room for error from unknown sources. Most of the times factor of safety leads to over design and increase project cost. Thus, those who reduce the factor of safety should know exactly what the consequences are, as they are stepping into the unknown. It would also require designers to be able to reject and modify a computer-generated design when necessary, incorporating the human factors to make the design more realistic.

Overall, the book is very intriguing and eye-opening since it does not dwell within the engineering field, but include thinking and imaginations that relate to the political, cultural, and literature fields. Through the arguments in the book, the author has succeeded in establishing the theme of the book: engineering cannot be successful without learning from design failures, and incorporating the factor of human. The significance of failure lies not only in the help it provides the engineers on the technical level, but in the sense, that learning from failure is the essence of engineering. Petroski also argues that engineers should not be detached from reality and experiences, despite the use of advance tools. Staying connected to the reality and society is also not merely helpful on the technical level, but will become inspirations of design that no computer is able to produce yet. It is only by combing the failure experiences and open-mindedness, can an engineer become truly successful.

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