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  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇coursework代做范文,文章講述云存儲是云計算技術的一部分,對于全球用戶而言并不陌生。范文內容和格式僅供留學生參考學習,不得抄襲,如有coursework代做需要,請聯系網站客服。
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本文是一篇coursework代做范文,題目為Introduction to cloud storage and related issues,文章講述云存儲是云計算技術的一部分,對于全球用戶而言并不陌生。范文內容和格式僅供留學生參考學習,不得抄襲,如有coursework代做需要,請聯系網站客服。云存儲

Introduction to cloud storage and related issues

I. Introduction引言

Cloud storage, which is a part of the cloud computing technique, has already been no stranger to worldwide users. If you type in “cloud storage” on Google, 153 million results will pop up. Among those top results are advertisements of cloud storage services offered by top-tier companies like IBM and Google. Actually at the top of the cloud storage market, there is a little more parity and competition. Google has launched its cloud storage platform, Google Drive, following Microsoft's re-launch of SkyDrive in place of OneDrive, and the market phenomenon, Apple. Inc has even distributed in this field even earlier and viewed it as a strategic infrastructure where all Apple products could harbor. As a part of the cloud computing, cloud storage is a hot topic in nowadays IT eco-system is self-evident, but nevertheless, like any other new stuff, it inevitably brings about other problems which lead to broad dispute in the society. At present, there has been a lot of attention on cloud security and copyright issue. Therefore, in this essay I will introduce the development of cloud storage technique and discuss this technique in lights of ethic, law and security.

云存儲作為云計算技術的一部分,對于全球用戶來說已經不陌生了。如果你在谷歌上輸入“云存儲”,會彈出1.53億個結果。其中最受歡迎的是IBM和谷歌等頂級公司提供的云存儲服務廣告。實際上,在云存儲市場的頂端,存在著更多的平等和競爭。繼微軟重新推出SkyDrive取代OneDrive以及市場現象蘋果之后,谷歌推出了云存儲平臺Google Drive。公司甚至更早就在這一領域進行了分銷,并將其視為所有蘋果產品的戰略基礎設施。云存儲作為云計算的一部分,是當今IT界的一個熱門話題,它的生態系統是不言而喻的,但與其他任何新事物一樣,它也不可避免地帶來了其他問題,引起了社會的廣泛爭議。目前,關于云安全和版權問題已經引起了廣泛的關注。因此,本文將介紹云存儲技術的發展,并從倫理、法律、安全等方面對云存儲技術進行探討。

II. Background背景

Just few years ago, cloud technology is totally a new technology. Though it could well be the norm for many business applications and in fact it is already a part of many computers operating system, most people don’t even know what the “Cloud” is talked about. Referring to Maynard, “Cloud storage is a model of data storage where the digital data is stored in logical pools, the physical storage spans multiple servers (and often locations), and the physical environment is typically owned and managed by a hosting company. These cloud storage providers are responsible for keeping the data available and accessible, and the physical environment protected and running. ” (Maynard, 2013) To put it in simple words, cloud data storage allows users, either companies or people, to store all of their information on a web-based platform. But simply just relate those professional internet player that provide huge data storage space as shareholder of cloud storage is narrow. The usage of cloud storage might remind people of a myriad of life experiences. Leave the computing technique behind, almost everyone has the experience that gets through certain interfaces via devices with an Internet connection like iPads and Android phones. Netizens nowadays enjoy cloud services from multiple tunnels, such as email, blog (that provides photo uploading and storing service), and other social network.


Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider is generally believed to have introduced the idea “cloud computing” in the 1960s. In 1969, he was working on enabling Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) to connect people and data from anywhere at any time. In his point of view, this invention was to connect everyone on the globe and to provide access to programs and data at any site, from anywhere, which seems in nowadays the concept of what we call cloud computing. (Maynard, 2013) About the development of cloud service later on, there are descriptions in mainly two streams. One of it recalls those individuals introduced evolved ideas while the other attributes to those heavy weight players in this field. Some names mentioned in this field are Kurt Vonnegut and John McCarthy. Vonnegut believed a cloud "does all the heavy thinking for everybody," and computer scientist John McCarthy proposed the idea of computation being delivered as a public utility, similar to the service bureaus which date back to the sixties. (Vonnegut, 1959) Actually with Web 2.0 being the most recent evolution, “cloud computing has developed along a number of lines since the sixties.” (Mohamed, 2009) However, after scientists knocked the door open, cloud computing for the masses has been something of a late developer in the 1990s and the stage was left for those commercial shareholders. In 1994, AT&T launched PersonaLink Services, “a completely web-base online platform for personal and business communication and entrepreneurship.” (Mohamed, 2009) 1999 witnessed another milestones in cloud computing. As Salesforce.com came upon, it pioneered the mode of delivering enterprise applications via one website. In 2006, Amazon Web Services made the debut of their cloud storage service AWS S3, and in 2002, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and in 2006, EC2. According to article A History of Cloud Storage, CEO of Brightcove, Jeremy Allaire believed “Amazon EC2/S3 was the first widely accessible cloud computing infrastructure service." (Mohamed, 2009) Nevertheless, after all, another giant, Google marked the year of 2009 by starting offering browser-based enterprise applications, though services such as Google Apps. 

III. Potential benefits

Chief executive officer of IBM’s Platform Computing, Song-nian Zhou believes "many IT professionals recognize the benefits cloud computing offers in terms of increased storage, flexibility and cost reduction." (IBM Corporation, 2012) It is generally believed that cloud computing can bring enormous benefits for IT users and it seems that most experts agree that present computing landscape will be finally transformed by cloud computing. As A History of Cloud Storage introduces Andreas Asander, vice-principal of product management at virtualisation security specialist Clavister, said

"cloud computing services can enable an enterprise to expand its infrastructure, add capacity on demand, or outsource the whole infrastructure, resulting in greater flexibility, a wider choice of computing resources and significant cost savings."

Also in the same article, A History of Cloud Storage, from specialist in emerging technologies, Julian Friedman, words are that today's applications will naturally move towards a cloud model as they become more pervasively available through the web, require more data processing, and span the boundaries of multiple devices. (Mohamed, 2009)  

IV. Legal and ethical issues

But still, Friedman has concerns on this new developed. In general, people worry the use of cloud storage will lead to problems, such as privacy leak, illegal misbehave, and ethical violation.

From the legal point of view, according to Patrick Van Eecke, professor from Antwerpen University, the popularity of cloud storage poses challenges in aspects as liability, applicable law, compliance, data protection, copyright, and data portability. To be more specific, firstly, many laws are lagging behind this IT age, and thus many legal issues are remained unsolved. Secondly, Patrick Van Eecke believes “many publicly available cloud computing contracts limit liability of hosting provider to a level that is not in line with the potential risk. Cloud computing contracts resemble typical software licenses, and potential risk is much higher.” (Eecke, 2010) Thirdly, there is a liability fro illegal. Nowadays the problem is that special protection is focused on storage itself, but some other activities are not taken into concern. And in some degree, even after certain law making, what was found is that a standard is missing in the “notice-and-takedown procedure.” (Eecke, 2010)

From the ethical point of view, the ethic issue about use of cloud storage is often related with business relationship, for example, between a lawyer and his clients. In this circumstance, when using the cloud in certain legal practice, it involves turning client confidential information over to the control of a third party. (Rubin, 2013) Even though, the related professional associations(here in this case——bar associations) are still adaptable and able to address new technology. In 2013, the American Bar Association adopted amendments to the Model Rules of Professional Conduct which expressed a kind of view that with proper guidance lawyers could look to the applicable ethics rules with “specific practices” being left to the lawyer’s exercise of judgment. (Rubin, 2013) In another field of application, for example, storing personal photos and writings in the cloud also arouses another ethnic issue——if someone get access to the others’ private documents which is in the cloud, leave beside this behavior is legal or not, is this kind of act is ethic? To violate the others’ privacy is clearly ethically wrong, but cloud storage nowadays adds to the risk of privacy leak.

V. Security concerns

From the security point of view, last and the most important factor people discuss about cloud storage is the security of sensitive data stored in the cloud. According to some experts, they believe in some degree, the centralization of data has increased their security statues. As non-professionals (the users) hand over the management of their data to the professional big companies, some problem that individuals are not able to tackle could seek better resolution. But at the same time, it truly causes a kind of loss in the control over these data. The saving environment becomes more and more complex as the wider distribution of data, and thus the risk of leaking is higher.

VI. Conclusion

It is no need to say that cloud computing can bring enormous benefits for IT users. However, a more stable and cloud-friendly environment has still been constructed since everything emerges with merits and problems. The process of learning how to secure, manage and monitor the growing range of external resources residing in the cloud is still on.


Eecke, P. V. (2010, April). Cloud Computing Legal Aspects. Antwerpen, Belgium. Retrieved Sep 29, 2014, from http://www.isaca.org/Groups/Professional-English/cloud-computing/GroupDocuments/DLA_Cloud computing legal issues.pdf

Annotation: Cloud Computing Legal Aspects is a presentation made by professor Eecke from Antwerpen University. This PPT format report lists out phenomena of the popularity of the cloud storage services. Besides, it also probes into challenges posed by these phenomena.

IBM Corporation. (2012, May). IBM Platform Computing. New York.

Annotation: It is an research style propaganda prepared by IBM company. It starts with advantages that cloud service brings forth from aspects like highlights, “Share the power, reap the rewards,” “Intelligent dynamic workload and resource management,” and “Integrated systems make deployment and adoption easier.” Though this “report” ends up the introduction of IBM services, the ending does not reduce reports credit.

Katz Deanne. (2012, Jun 18). How Cloud Storage and Confidentiality Can Work Together. Retrieved Sep 30, 2014, from findlaw.com: http://blogs.findlaw.com/technologist/2012/06/cloud-storage-for-confidential-documents-is-not-a-contradiction.html  

Annotation: How Cloud Storage and Confidentiality Can Work Together is posted on the findlaw.com in the form of a blog post. As its name reveals, it mainly introduces the confidential statues of present cloud storage service. This article is written in a legal angle, and therefore it is not interesting or “for everyone”, but nevertheless, you will find what you look for on the topic “cloud storage” and “confidentiality.”

Maynard James. (2013, Jan 3). Cloud Storage–the First 50 Years. Retrieved Sep 29, 2014,  from


Annotation: It is a well written article which consists the first 50 years evolution of cloud storage technique. James starts with social phenomena as hook, and has done this job with plain language and examples in lives. It could serve as an ideal introduction for the non-professional to learn about cloud storage.

Mohamed, A. (2009, Mar 27). A history of cloud computing. Retrieved Sep 27, 2014, from ComputerWeekly.com: http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/A-history-of-cloud-computing

Annotation: Reading A history of cloud computing is a simple way to learn the processing of cloud computing. This article is not long but counts down the history in a time order. What is more, it offers the names in the history so that readers with dense interests can explore more with these strings

Rubin, K. E. (2013, Dec). Blue skies above Legal ethics and cloud storage. Retrieved Sep 30, 2014, from https://www.ohiobar.org/NewsAndPublications/OhioLawyer/Pages/Blue-skies-above-Legal-ethics-and-cloud-storage.aspx

Annotation: Blue skies above Legal ethics and cloud storage is the kind of articles one could find in law school textbook. It mainly explains the ethics aspect of lawyers’ using of cloud storage. It has the language of legal documents, clearly defined, and absolutly precise.

Vonnegut, K. (1959). Sirens of Titan (Trade Paperback Edition ed.). New York: Dial Press.

Annotation:  The writer, Kurt Vonnegut, is brilliant. After reading this book, Sirens of Titan, most reader would probably get this impression. Fifty years ahead of us, he has already figured out “the cloud” and its essence, even before “the cloud” is invented.