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Microeconomics IA Essay代寫范文

發布時間:2021-07-23 09:58:52 閱讀:3353

案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:經濟學一般分為微觀經濟學和宏觀經濟學。前者主要研究的單個經濟單位(e.g.單個行業、單個消費者)。而后者則著眼于總量分析,具體的例子包括研究一個國家的年度預算、利息水平以及消費端or供給端的政策分析。
  • 字數:1915 字
  • 預計閱讀時間:6分鐘

案例詳情

經濟學一般分為微觀經濟學和宏觀經濟學。前者主要研究的單個經濟單位(e.g.單個行業、單個消費者)。而后者則著眼于總量分析,具體的例子包括研究一個國家的年度預算、利息水平以及消費端or供給端的政策分析。

經濟學插畫

今天我們的范文就是一篇關于微觀經濟學的Internal Assessment Essay。雖然關于經濟學的essay,出題的方式多種多樣,但是 IA essay則是最讓賓賓頭痛的一類。這類essay需要同學首先選取一篇article,這篇文章需要包含現實經濟社會中某一個problem或者一個現象,但是文章本身又不能提供過多的對于這個問題的分析。因為,分析這個問題是你的任務。然后,結合經濟學理論來對這個problem進行分析,最后提出一到兩個解決方案。

此類essay最大的難點就是,你寫的文章必須和經濟學理論高度結合,并且通篇都需要像一個專業的經濟學家那樣講話,這一點在分析各種經濟學圖表時尤其重要。所以,即便大多數 Internal Assessment Essay的字數要求都不高,其難度確是非常地高。今天就給大家介紹一篇高水準的 Microeconomics IA Essay范文。雖然文章只有八百個字,但是卻包含了滿滿的干貨,希望對大家的Essay寫作能有所幫助。

首先先來看一下經濟學新聞報道!

Smoker Zoran Cacic is having to go cold turkey due to the cigarette price hike.

The annual cigarette price hike has forced one  New Zealand  smoker to go cold turkey. "I haven't got a choice now, the priceis out of my budget," said Zoran Cacic, a smoker for 32 years. He had not been able to buy a packet since the 10 per cent tax increase rolled into effect on January 1 2017.

In the 32 years since Mr Cacic started smoking he had tried to stop a few times, finding the gum and patches ineffective. "I had cut myself down to 3 to 4 smokes a day, I was slowly weaning myself off from the 20 to 30 cigarettes a day I used to smoke."

He said it had been nice to have the option to stop on his own terms but since the latest price hike, he's had to go cold turkey. "I'm a stubborn person, I refuse to try to find the extra money. I'm sure it's not going to be easy."

An amputee and on the sickness benefit, Mr Cacic's budget just would not allow the price increase for him to continue his weaning off process - "and it's not like my circumstances are going to change in a hurry."

Mr Cacic had been smoking since he was 14 - when society told him it was cool and not lethal. "All the sportsmen, movie stars smoked. No one was saying it was going to give me cancer and I got hooked," he said.

The price hike has been good news for electronic cigarette retailers in New Zealand  (Tauranga), who have seen an upswing in converts in the New Year. Ben Kitson, owner of E-Juice Bar on Cameron Rd, said the tax hike and New Year's resolutions were pushing people to an alternative.

"It's been huge, there have been hundreds of people coming in." E-Juice Bar had to move to a bigger premises and take on three new staff members to keep up with the demand in the previous three months. Naked Vapour in Papamoa owner Lia Haskett said they had been busy over the holiday period.

"Price has had an effect on people, it's always a factor in helping people along to make the decision to change over." A staff member at Park Mini Mart said she noticed on December 30 and 31 people bought two packets instead of one, thinking of the price increase ahead.

"Now, people are not very happy. But they know they have to stop sooner or later." She said the price hike made her worried the mart would be robbed as people get desperate for cigarettes -"this is what gave rise to the heinous acts last year." "The punishment should be more for robbery - it's not enough at the moment."

Quitline CEO Andrew Slater said the holiday period saw a big influx of calls. "Quitting smoking is not an easy thing for everyone, most people don't succeed on their first attempt, but you need to keep trying." The Government will be increasing the tax on cigarettes every year for four years, hoping to become smoke free by 2025.

本篇新聞并不長只有六百多字,卻是一篇非常適合 IA essay的article,因為此文只是介紹一個新西蘭的經濟現象,也就是政府提高了煙草的稅率,導致了煙草價格的上升,并且進一步引起了部分煙民的戒煙行為和部分煙民轉而消費起了電子煙。那么接下來就來就進入正題看看我是如何把這個經濟現象和微觀經濟學理論聯系起來的。

Microeconomics Commentary

The article discusses the response of cigarette consumers after the imposition of a cigarette tax in Tauranga, New Zealand. Excise taxes are fees levied on producers and consumers by the government. The tax introduced in the article is ad-valorem tax, which is a fixed percentage of the price of the good or service (Tragakes, 2012). to curb the consumption of cigarette - a demerit good considered unhealthy or unfavorable for consumers. The government is looking after the economic well being of the nation, through present and future economic choices.

圖表一

In January 1 2017, a 10-percent tax ‘rolled into effect’. The tax is implemented to serve the purpose of bringing about the economic well being through correcting negative externalities - negative and harmful side-effects on the society. Negative externalities of the consumption of cigarettes are lung cancer and other health problems paid in the form of healthcare. Besides, using cigarettes put a constraint on the healthcare system due to the involvement of passive smokers.

In the diagram, MPB curve is greater than the MSC because smoking creates external costs on non-smokers, so the society benefits as a whole less than the smokers themselves. This signals that there is an over allocation of resources to the production of cigarettes and the society would be better off if less than the level of output Qm is produced.

The tax rate of 10% on cigarette results in an upward shift of the supply curve from S1 to S2. This new curve is steeper than the original one because as the price increases, so does the tax per unit. The tax internalizes the negative externalities since it causes a decrease in the level of output. This is based on the ground that fewer smokers can afford cigarettes at price Pt. 

“...the price is out of my budget”. Thus, an attempt at achieving economic well-being is being made through forced economic choices. If the tax equals external costs, the MSB curve will intersect MPB curve at the socially optimal level of output, and the quantity produced and consumed drops to the social optimum level. The tax therefore allows allocative efficiency to be achieved.

圖表二

Since cigarettes and e-cigarettes are close substitutes, or in other words, products that satisfy a similar need and a fall in price of one results in a fall in the demand of the other (Tragakes, 2012), the demand for e-cigarettes is affected. This relationship is explained by the concept of cross-price elasticity (XED) which is a measure of the responsiveness of demand for one good to a change in price of another good (Blink, & Norton, 2012). In this case, “the price hike has resulted in an upswing in converts in the New Year” and “It’s (the demand for e-cigarettes) has been huge”. This proved that the absolute XED value of cigarettes and e-cigarettes is relatively high.

In the diagram, D1 and D2 represents the original and the new demand curves of ecigarettes. When the price for cigarettes increases, there is a rightward shift of the demand curve from D1 to D2 of e-cigarettes. The movement results in the change in quantity demanded and supplied from Q1 to Q2 and an increase in price paid by consumers, which means electronic cigarette retailers earn a greater revenue (Q2× P2 as opposed to Q1× P1) and are better off in this decision. If the smokers recklessly continue substituting smoking to e- cigarettes, the government may begin intervening in the e-cigarettes market too to sustain the economic well being of the nation.

In the short run, the tax imposed is beneficial as its purpose is twofold: bringing about a source of revenue for the government, which is the area ACIH in the diagram, and reducing the consumption of cigarettes. When they are produced less, there will be allocative efficiency as the capital investment and labour can be redistributed to merit goods. This, in the long run, leads to a healthier population with more productive capacity or enhanced economic well-being hence the government can focus their spending on other welfare.

Nevertheless, there are certain difficulties in this approach worthy of consideration. In the short term, the tax induces the underground markets where cigarettes are sold at  “people who get desperate for cigarettes”. Additionally, a lower amount of output means fewer workers are needed therefore there may occur some unemployment in the cigarette industry. 

Another downside of the approach might be the difficulties in measuring the value of external costs in order to completely eradicate the external cost. A key concept in this commentary is economic well- being. By implementing taxes, the government has brought about certain success to put an end to smoking in Tauranga, but it will also depend upon the consumers choices towards their own economic well-being.

Bibliography

Tragakes, E. (2012). Economics for the IB Diploma Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.

Blink, J., & Norton, I. (2012). IB Economics Course Book: 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.

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