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Essay代寫范文-中國女性的地位

發布時間:2020-03-30 11:19:52 閱讀:1716

案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇Essay代寫范文,這篇Essay主要討論了中國女性的地位及其對夫妻關系的影響。在很長一段時間里,中國女性被視為男性的下級,受到儒家諸如孝道和貞操等規定的限制,這導致她們在夫妻關系中的地位較低。
  • 字數:2915字
  • 預計閱讀時間:10分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇Essay代寫范文,題目為:Womans Status and its Influence on Spousal Relationship in China,這篇Essay主要討論了中國女性的地位及其對夫妻關系的影響。在很長一段時間里,中國女性被視為男性的下級,受到儒家諸如孝道和貞操等規定的限制,這導致她們在夫妻關系中的地位較低。理想的夫妻關系還將女性置于照顧老人和孩子的角色,這不僅包括簡單的夫妻關系,還包括與大家庭的關系。包辦婚姻也導致了女性受到的待遇比男性少。女性地位是影響中國夫妻關系的一個主要因素。隨著歷史上女性社會地位的提高,中國的夫妻關系也隨之發展成為一種更加健康的關系。

Essay代寫范文

1.Introduction

Spousal relationship is a great component of Chinese culture throughout history and it is a distinctive relationship compared to that in the western societies.One of the features that distinguishes a Chinese spousal relationship from a western one is how women are treated in the relationship.Moreover,the spousal relationship in China is largely based on the status of women in marriage.To elaborate,in the traditional Chinese society,the constraints for women’s behaviors were fundamental for the ideal spousal relationship.On contrast,women’s social status has improved,meaning women become equals to men in marriage as stated in Marriage Law of PRC,thus the spousal relationship has also changed accordingly.In this essay,I will discuss the spousal relationship in the Chinese culture from the perspective of woman’s status,which is the defining factor of said relationship.

配偶關系是中國歷史文化的重要組成部分,與西方社會相比,它是一種獨特的關系。中國配偶關系與西方配偶關系的一個特點是如何對待女性。此外,中國的配偶關系在很大程度上是一種關系。從婦女的婚姻地位入手,闡述中國傳統社會對婦女行為的制約是建立理想夫妻關系的根本,而相比之下,婦女的社會地位有所提高,即《中華人民共和國婚姻法》所規定的婦女在婚姻中與男子平等,夫妻關系也因此得到了改善。因此,本文將從女性地位的角度來探討中國文化中的夫妻關系,這是這種關系的決定性因素。

2.Confucian Constraints for Women

Confucianism made great contributions to restricting womens behaviors in the Chinese history and it became fundamental for womens status in a spousal relationship.This philosophy emphasis on a concept of filial piety in its classic The Book of Filial Piety,which includes advice and regulations for one’s behaviors in front of honourable figures,such as seniors and governing officials.This book was originally applied to a wide range of audience,including both male and female genders.However,a derivation of this book was composed later,around 730 AD,specifically designated for women,entitled The Book of Filial Piety for Women.In this book,females were“told to cultivate Confucian virtues like filial piety,faithfulness,loyalty,diligence,trustworthiness,and sincerity,and warned against such evils as scheming,selfishness,and sensual indulgence.”(Ebrey,2001)These gender-specific rules suggest that women were required to exceed exceptions for men simply because of their gender,and in addition to that,they need to treat their husbands as superiors as that is what the concept of filial piety entails.In the book,there are more detailed requirements for a wife some of which may sound unreasonable;for example,a woman should agree with what her husband says regardless if he is correct on the subject.This revels that women were not allowed to have opinions and once again,were considered as inferiors to men in a marriage.

儒學在中國歷史上為限制婦女的行為做出了巨大的貢獻,它成為婦女在配偶關系中地位的基礎,這一哲學在其經典著作《孝書》中強調了孝的概念,其中包括在尊敬的無花果面前對一個人的行為提出建議和規定。例如老年人和政府官員。這本書最初適用于廣泛的受眾,包括男性和女性。然而,這本書的一個派生后來編寫,大約公元730年,專門為婦女指定,題為《婦女孝道書》。在這本書中,女性“被告知要培養儒家精神。像孝順、忠誠、忠誠、勤奮、值得信賴和真誠這樣的周二,并對諸如陰謀、自私和肉欲放縱等邪惡行為發出警告。”(Ebrey,2001年)這些性別特定的規則表明,女性僅僅因為性別而被要求超過男性的例外,除此之外,她們還需要對待自己的丈夫。作為上級,這就是孝道的概念所要求的。在這本書中,對妻子有更詳細的要求,有些要求聽起來可能不合理;例如,一個女人應該同意她丈夫所說的話,不管他在這個問題上是否正確。這表明,女人不被允許發表意見,并且再一次,是C。被認為是婚姻中男人的下級。

Chastity is another important aspect of Confucianism in spousal relationship in terms of womens status.It is similar to many characteristics of filial piety but it is more strict and voluntary than that.It is considered a virtue also exclusive to women.It suggests that women not only were not supposed to be engaged in sexual activities before marriage,but also should be loyalty to their husbands even after the husbands had died.This chastity cult is linked with neo-Confucianism,starting from the Song dynasty(1127-1279).The statement of“to starve to death is a small matter,but to lose one’s chastity is a great matter”was made by Chen Yi(Ebrey,2003),declaring that a woman’s virtue is much more important than her life.Later in the Ming dynasty(1368-1644),in Fuzhou,Fujian Province,the widows,who had followed the Confucian philosophy since they were girls,would starve themselves to death instead of remarry(Ebrey,2009).This action is greatly encouraged by the society,including their families,whose reaction was to display“banners or arches proclaiming their virtue”(Ebrey,2009).This cult of chastity suicide has continued for hundreds of years hereafter;even after May Fourth Movement,suicides of women to preserve chastity were still romanticised in literature by Lu Xun and Mao Zedong,among other writers(Ropp,2001).This chastity cult is deeply engraved in people’s mind including women’s.They also profoundly believed that their lives did not weigh more than their chastity,labelling themselves as objects rather than human beings.

貞操是儒家在夫妻關系中婦女地位的另一個重要方面,它與孝道的許多特點相似,但它比孝道更為嚴格和自愿,它被認為是一種美德,也是女性獨有的美德,它表明女性不僅不應該在婚前從事性活動。到了老公,也應該忠于自己的老公,即使老公死了。這種貞節崇拜與新儒家思想有關,始于宋朝(1127-1279)。陳毅(Ebrey,2003)發表了“餓死是件小事,失去貞節是件大事”的聲明,宣稱女人的美德比她的生活更重要。在明朝后期(1368-1644年),福建福州的寡婦,從少女時代就開始遵循儒家哲學,她們寧愿餓死也不愿再婚(Ebrey,2009年)。這一行動受到社會,包括她們的家人的極大鼓舞,他們的反應是展示“禁令”。納爾斯或拱門宣揚他們的美德”(埃布里,2009年)。這種對貞操自殺的崇拜在此后的幾百年里一直持續著;甚至在五四運動之后,魯迅和毛澤東等作家的文學作品中仍將自殺婦女來維護貞操浪漫化(羅普,2001年)。這種貞操崇拜深深地刻在人們的內心深處。包括婦女在內,他們還深刻地相信,她們的生活并不比貞潔更重要,他們把自己標記為對象而不是人。

3.The Ideal Spousal Relationship

Womens inferior status is also revealed in the ideal of a spousal relationship in the Chinese history.In the traditional Chinese society,an ideal spousal relationship depends greatly on how the wife behaves.This is revealed in personal letters between husbands and wives from the seventeenth century.In these letters,the husband was away and he reminded the wife to take care of his parents,their children,which is not unusual even in a modern context.Furthermore,he further asked her not to“make our parents complain that you are unfilial”or“our children suffer for lack of instruction.”(Lowry,2001)The wife is positioned as a caretaker of the elderly and children,and that is extremely important in making marital relationship a functional one.In the wife’s response to the letter,she repeated what her husband asked her to do,agreeing that she would serve them well when he was not here.Similarly,women in this period voluntarily play the role of an ideal wife,whose character is based on an unequal gender situation.

The ideal spousal relationship is also based on utilitarianism in the Chinese culture and this led to the result that the basis of a marriage is having a child and continue the family line instead of love.Conjugal relations have not been the focus among all relations in China.In Confucian philosophy,it is listed as the fourth important in five relations in total,which are respectively ruler-minister,father-son,elder brother-younger brother,husband-wife,and friend-friend(Pimentel,2000).In addition,men therefore is regarded as a link to the ancestor and the descendants.This further resulted in the gender preference when a family was expecting a baby,as they would believe that having a boy is protecting the family line and a girl would eventually married into another family,which made her an outsider.Marriages were also commonly arranged by parents with the help from intermediates.The wife was selected by them using criteria listed earlier in this essay,such as her virtue,trustworthiness,etc.The marriage is arranged for the benefits of the entire family.To be specific,the parents were most concerned about if the wife would serve the elderly well and if she had the ability to bear enough babies.Again,women were considered as caretakers in the family,with an additional role of a birthing instrument.Not only they were valued less than males from birth,they were also put into the position of furthering the family line by providing babies.

Western Chamber,a play written in the Yuan dynasty(1271-1368)by Wang Shifu,provides a female character who is unafraid to pursue true love in a traditional Chinese context.The story involves Cui,the female protagonist,falling in love with Zhang,a young scholar.Their love was not approved by Cui’s parents,and they were punished because they were contacting each other without the parents knowing.Cui’s mother offered Zhang a condition for them to get married,which is for Zhang to succeed in the exam of the central governing official.The story ends in a happy ending with the two lovers getting married.However,the story was considered immoral at the time,and later was forbidden to circulate.This reveals that the liberation of the female gender is not widely accepted at the time,and the idea of marriage based on love was also most uncommon.Although the story implies that there is a realisation of gender equality and marital relationships with love,it was still not widespread and even forbidden for a long time.

4.Spousal Relationship in the Modern Society

In the modern context,womens status in a spousal relationship has not improved until the execution of Marriage Law of PRC in 1950.As mentioned earlier,May Fourth Movement did not change how the society viewed woman or how women evaluated themselvesan object subordinated to chastity.The chastity cult still exists in both society and literature.In 1950,Marriage Law of PRC legally states that the two parties in a marriage are equal.However,this cannot guarantee actual gender equality or marriage quality in spousal relationships.It cannot eliminate the discrimination in one single step but given time and patience,it is not an impossible mission.

Research is carried out on how the marriage quality is in urban China compared to western standards.The results of Pimentel(2000)suggest that there are many aspects of different of Chinese spousal relationships from western ones.The interaction between spouses outside the family is considered important by western standards,but not in the Chinese perception.Although in modern society,people are free to choose their spouses,Chinese people reacted that they did not date often compared to the western culture.The reason behind these is the culture that nurtured China,including Confucianism.In addition,the research also shows that even though the two parties in a marriage is stated to be equal in legal documents,the gender difference still lies between the husband and the wife.Therefore,it is not likely that this gender difference will disappear in a very short of time but as people are getting happier in their spousal relationships,it is reasonable to expect this will lead to equality.

5.Conclusion

In this essay,I investigated the status of females in spousal relationships through the Chinese history.For a long time,they were treated as inferiors to males,restricted by Confucian regulations such as filial piety and chastity.This has resulted in their lower status in a spousal relationship.The ideal of spousal relationships also put women into the position of caretakers who are supposed to serve the elderly and the children,which involves more than a simple husband-wife relationship but also a relationship with a larger family.Arranged marriages have also contributed to the fact that women were treated less than males.In the modern society,women were legally pronounced as equals to men in marriage in 1950.

In conclusion,womens status is a major factor influencing Chinese spousal relationships.As the social status of woman improves in history,the spousal relationship in China has developed into a more heathy one consequently.

Reference:

Diamant,N.J.(2000).Re-examining the impact of the 1950 Marriage Law:State improvisation,local initiative and rural family change.The China Quarterly,161,171-198.

Ebrey,P.B.(2001).The Book of Filial Piety for Women Attributed to a Woman Née Zheng(ca.730).Under Confucian Eyes:Writings on Gender in Chinese History,47-69.

(2003).Women and the family in Chinese history.Routledge.

(2009).Widows Loyal unto Death.From Chinese civilization:A sourcebook.Simon and Schuster.

Lowry,K.(2001).Personal letters in seventeenth-century epistolary guides.Under Confucian Eyes:Writings on Gender in Chinese History,155-67.

Marriage Law of the Peoples Republic of China,The(1980).Pacific Affairs,vol.57,no.2(Summer,1984).266-269.

Pimentel,E.E.(2000).Just how do I love thee?:Marital relations in urban China.Journal of Marriage and Family,62(1),32-47.

Ropp,P.S.(2001).Passionate women:Female suicide in late Imperial China-Introduction.Nan nü,3(1),3-21.

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