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美國Essay代寫范文-The Kallipolis

發布時間:2020-03-30 11:27:24 閱讀:2408

案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇優秀的美國Essay代寫范文,這篇Essay主要討論了卡利波利斯概念。在《理想國》中,柏拉圖引入了他的卡利波利斯概念,這是一個希臘術語,意指柏拉圖心目中理想的公正城市。
  • 字數:1996字
  • 預計閱讀時間:6分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇優秀的美國Essay代寫范文,題目為:The Kallipolis,這篇Essay主要討論了卡利波利斯概念。在《理想國》中,柏拉圖引入了他的卡利波利斯概念,這是一個希臘術語,意指柏拉圖心目中理想的公正城市。雖然柏拉圖的卡利波利斯概念在社會和諧穩定方面提出了有效的觀點,但這些觀點并不適用于當代社會??茖W技術、互聯網賦予人們的力量、以社會進化為目標的教育體系以及以經濟為驅動的社會,是阻礙現代城邦建立的主要因素。

美國Essay代寫范文

In The Republic,Plato introduces his concepts of“Kallipolis,”a Greek term for the just city that is the ideal in Plato’s mind(Smith,1999).In this essay,the historical background and the major beliefs of the Kallipolis will be discussed,followed by a comparison with the modern context.Although Plato has raised valid ideas in terms of social harmony and stability,these ideas do not apply in the contemporary society.Science and technology,people empowered by the internet,an educational system aiming for social evolution,and an economy-driven society are the major factors to prevent the modern Kallipolis to be created.

在《共和國》中,柏拉圖介紹了他的“卡利波利斯”的概念,這是一個希臘詞,意為柏拉圖心目中理想的正義之城(Smith,1999年)。本文將討論卡利波利斯的歷史背景和主要信仰,并與現代語境進行比較。盡管柏拉圖從社會學的角度提出了有效的觀點,但他仍然認為卡利波利斯是理想之城(Smith,1999年)。和諧與穩定,這些思想不適用于當代社會,科學技術、互聯網賦予人們的權力、旨在社會進化的教育體系和經濟驅動的社會是阻止現代卡爾利波利斯被創造的主要因素。

The discussion of Kallipolis should not be separated from its historical background.The ancient Greek geographical environment determined the country to be equivalent to the city-state.This had led to the fact that Western traditional political science is also about city-state politics(Smith,1999).Plato was in an era of slavery decline and collapse.The old system was greatly affected and destroyed because it failed to meet the needs of the development of productive forces.The democratic politics that were once the Pride of Athenians were no longer flourishing with the end of the Peloponnesian War.Plato's had great political aspirations in his youth,he traveled three times to Sicily but still failed to achieve his political ideal.

卡利波利斯的討論不應脫離其歷史背景,古希臘的地理環境決定了這個國家等同于城邦,這導致了西方傳統政治科學也與城邦政治有關(Smith,1999),柏拉圖處于奴隸制衰落和崩潰的時代。舊制度由于不能滿足生產力發展的需要而受到了極大的影響和破壞。伯羅奔尼撒戰爭結束后,一度為雅典人驕傲的民主政治不再繁榮。柏拉圖年輕時有著偉大的政治抱負,他曾三次到西西里島,但在西西里島卻沒有得到應有的發展。ll未能實現他的政治理想。

This historic background of Kallipolis is drastically different from that of the modern era.Firstly,the scale of political system has been significantly diversified,with countries ranging from as small as cities to as large as continents.With the industrial revolutions,humans have developed the capabilities to overcome geographic obstacles already.This expansion and diversification make it much harder to practice Plato’s Kallipolis in the modern world.In addition to the failure of anticipating technological revolutions,the Kallipolis ideal also fails to align with the internet culture,educational system,and the economy-driven modern society.

卡爾利波利斯的歷史背景與現代大不相同。首先,政治體制的規模已經明顯多樣化,國家從城市到大陸都有。隨著工業革命,人類已經發展了克服地理障礙的能力。這種擴張和多樣化使得柏拉圖的卡爾利波利斯在現代世界的實踐更加困難,除了沒有預見到技術革命之外,卡爾利波利斯的理想也沒有與互聯網文化、教育體系和經濟驅動的現代社會相一致。

As a student of Socrates,Plato inherited and carried forward his teacher's point of view on the human nature(Russell,2004).In The Republic,Plato pointed out that just as there are rulers,warriors,workers and peasants in the country,there are also three parts of an individual's soul,namely,reason,passion and desire(Smith,1999).Among them,reason is wisdom,plays a leading role.Passion obeys reason,becoming its assistant.Desire occupies the largest part of the soul,it is insatiable,and must be controlled by reason and passion.If the three parts of reason,passion and desire are in harmony with each other,the soul is in the best condition and the person is a self-controlled person.Therefore,Plato believes that when reason,passion and desire work in harmony and coordination,the soul can be the master of itself.

Since Plato faced the political situation of moral degeneration and the decline of the city state due to the chaos of democracy,Plato's task was to restore the moral foundation of the city-state in order to save the decaying system.In ancient Greece,the city-state was autonomous organizations run by free Citizens.They were the political carrier of citizens'sharing of rights and obligations(Smith,1999).Therefore,Plato started from the theory of justice and regarded morality as the goal and means of politics,attempting to justify and construct an ideal city,the Kallipolis,from the perspective of morality.Its core content of Kallipolis include social classes,rule of philosophy,egalitarianism,educational and legal sysms.

According to Plato,justice is not only about personal justice,but also the justice of the city(Plato,2008).In the Kallipolis,the two kinds of justice should be essentially identical and mutually reinforcing in functions.Justice is the supreme standard of human morality because it can command such virtues as wisdom,courage and temperance.The principle of political life and the purpose of establishing political order lay in establishing a harmonious moral order.Therefore,justice is a law that sets the social strata in the position and responsibility that are determined by their natural talents(Plato,2008).By doing so,the society thus functions under harmony and order.Under this law,the three classes of the ideal city-state,the thinkers,the military,and the laborers,are in accordance with the moralities of wisdom,courage and temperance.These three classes are responsible for managing,defending and producing for the country,in collaboration with each other.

Based on the social stratification and classification beliefs to maximize efficiency and maintain order,Plato also proposes the ruling class of the Kallipolis society to be composed with philosophers.Plato believes that an ideal state must have a group of professional rulers or managers(Plato,2008).Only the most talented,and well-trained philosophers are capable of ruling.Although Plato believes that people have different temperaments and talents,not all people with a certain gift can take full advantage and realize the whole potential of it.This makes education not only a necessary tool for self-improvement,but also crucial instrument to maintain social stratification.Through education,people do learn about the society and the world.But more importantly,they learn about themselves:the positions in the society and corresponding capabilities and responsibility in these positions.by establishing comprehensive self-knowledge,members of the society can have a better understanding of their purpose in society and fulfill their duties with a higher sense of achievement.

From the modern perspective,such a view of social stratification of Plato is quite backwards.The majority,or the laborers and producers,have not remained static in history.Instead,they have been the active factor in driving social revolutions and change.In the modern society,the characteristics and behaviors of the masses have changed.They have been empowered with the internet and the flow of information.Although social stratification is still the case in the modern society,it should not be considered as a product of human desire and greed.With knowledge and information,the masses also have a voice in choosing their leaders,as the modern form of democracy(Rheingold,2002).The idea of education for Plato is also drastically different from the modern education system.The purpose of education should not be to encourage individuals to remain in their respective social classes.Instead,it is to encourage them to achieve greater things that used to be impossible due to the limit of their social classes.With the gradual force of education,the entire population can be equipped with more advanced level of knowledge,leading to social revolution.Bound by the pursuit for harmony and peace,Plato emphasized too much on stability and overlooked the forces of change.

Plato is also a firm believer of egalitarianism,also sometimes mistaken as an early form of communism.Plato holds that the root of selfishness and greed is private ownership.The competition for private property leads to the loss of morality and the decline of the city-state(Plato,2008).In order to foster the good moral character of citizens and realize the unity within the city and the prosperity of the state,Kallipolis should abolish private ownership,even families.By eliminating the small family units,the city-state integrated into one single community with shared purposes(Plato,2008).In the economy-driven world nowadays,such beliefs no longer apply.Most of the traditional communist countries in the world have recognized the importance of the market.In such a world,economic development is the new rule and supremacy.Egalitarianism may be the next form of human society evolution,but it cannot be achieved in the foreseeable future.Overall,Kallipolis is an ideal state that requires static social classes and stability driven ideologies.Both of these are not present in the mainstream of the contemporary society.

References:

Plato.(2008).The Republic.Digireads.com.

Rheingold,H.(2002).Smart mobs:The next social revolution.Cambridge,Mass:Perseus Pub.

Russell,B.(2004).History of western philosophy.New York:Routledge.

Smith,N.D.(1999).Plato's analogy of soul and state.The Journal of Ethics,3(1),31-49.

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