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Reflective Essay代寫范文-商業談判

發布時間:2020-08-01 15:46:42 閱讀:2571

案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀:本文是一篇對商科留學生來說非常實用的范文,雖然任何類型的Project都可以用來寫ReflectiveEssay,但是商業談判是幾乎每一個管理類專業的同學都會接觸的課程,本文的寫作思路也可以適用于任何類型ReflectiveEssay,希望能夠為大家寫作提供更多的靈感。
  • 字數:2450 字
  • 預計閱讀時間:8分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇對商科留學生來說非常實用的范文,雖然任何類型的project都可以用來寫reflective essay,但是商業談判是幾乎每一個管理類專業的同學都會接觸的課程,本文的寫作思路也可以適用于任何類型reflective essay,希望能夠為大家寫作提供更多的靈感。

reflective essay

今天的這篇范文就是借鑒了英國曼徹斯特大學 MBA 學生的談判課程的題目而寫的。首先,同學們組成了一個小的team然后和他們的供貨商,一家名為Brussels Laser公司的代表進行了談判。談判的主要訴求就是同學們所代表的企業希望Brussels Laser能夠提早八周交貨,但是又不希望支付加急費用。

本篇范圍將會以第一人稱的形式來寫,我所代表的企業本來以為作業一個大型的采購商我們應該可以很容易就能說服供應商來答應我們額外的要求。雖然我們急需Brussels Laser所提供的配件,但是保險起見我們已經另外聯系了一家日本公司作為替補,以便在談判不順利時用換供貨商的策略來讓Brussels Laser讓步。

接下來我就來分析一下談判過程中遇到的問題,以及雙方是如何解決矛盾,并且最終達成妥協的。最重要的是,本文詳細解釋了我作為主要的negotiator在談判過程中所犯的錯誤和在未來談判過程可以借鑒的經驗。

1. Introduction引言

In the simulation, our team went in with the goal that Brussels Laser can accept our updated terms (8-10 weeks delivery deadline) delivery and maintain the original price offering. We were confident that we have better bargaining power because of our company’s position as the world’s largest mineral processing company. 

在模擬過程中,我們的團隊的目標是布魯塞爾激光可以接受我們更新的條款(8-10周的交貨期限)交貨,并保持原來的報價。由于我們公司是世界上最大的礦物加工公司,我們有信心有更好的議價能力。

Our firm has continuous and huge demand of for X-Ray equipment procurement and we are certain that no supplier would want to miss the chance of working with us. Furthermore, we have a good and strong back-up deal with a Japanese company, and this deal can be used to enhance our bargaining position in the negotiation.

我們公司對X光設備的采購有持續而巨大的需求,我們確信任何供應商都不會錯過與我們合作的機會。此外,我們與一家日本公司有一筆很好很強的后備交易,這筆交易可以用來提高我們在談判中的議價地位。

We started the negotiation by going directly to the point of insisting an 8-week delivery timeline. This was immediately rejected by Brussels Laser, who claims that early delivery would incur more costs and they want to transfer such cost to us by imposing a “2% increase per week pushed to 8 weeks”. 

This was not accepted and we quickly changed our tactic from integrative bargaining to distributive bargaining, by pointing out to Brussels Laser that we have another good offer on hand. However, Brussels Laser questioned about the quality of this offer and emphasised on their ability to meet our quality requirement.

We took a break to calm down and returned to the negotiation. Finally, we have agreed to a “1% increase per week pushed to 9 weeks” deal.

2. Reflection

After the negotiation, I have reflected and learnt from a few moments in the negotiation.

2.1 Communication in Negotiation

2.1.1 Description, Feelings and Evaluation

Firstly, at the moment when Brussels Laser rejected our request to shorten delivery time with unchanged prices and proposed a 2% increase in price, I felt negative sentiments within myself, because I interpreted the counterparty as being aggressive. 

Together with my team, we switched our negotiation tactic from integrative to distributive. This reaction was good in the sense that we raise our position when things were not going in our preferred direction. A stronger stand may help us to get what we want. However, on the other hand, I felt that the switch was too fast. 

We have not explained our rationale for wanting a quicker delivery and neither expressed our willingness to corporate with Brussels Laser in order to work out a mutually beneficial deal. In essence, we have not adequately and appropriately used the integrative tactic.

2.1.2 Analysis

In that situation, Brussels Laser could be just proposing their requirements with a neutral position. Thus, we could have overly negatively interpreted their position and adopted an aggressive strategy too quickly. Our reaction could appear unfriendly to Brussels Laser. 

This is a problem which can be explained by the communication model (Peterson et al., 2016, 430) – which is the receiver’s decoding process. The decoding process involves subjective elements, including our personalities (Balmaceda et al., 2013, 150). 

Furthermore, in bringing out our alternative offer – the Japanese company, we put it as a “threat”. We have failed to explain our “mitigating circumstances”. The alternative could have been phrased as our last resort and that our priority is still to be working with Brussels Laser. 

With that phrasing, we would still achieve the aim of letting Brussels Laser sense the urgency but cooling down the tension with better phrasing choice.

2.1.3 Conclusion

Therefore, it can be concluded that switching of negotiation strategy requires more careful planning, because the timing and method of switching place an integral part of in the communication between parties in a negotiation process. 

More specifically, in the case of this simulation, I would partially attribute the reactions to my lack of experience in negotiation, and my characteristic of being pessimistic (which leads to the tendency of interpreting statements in anegative way).

2.1.4 Personal Action Plan

If given similar situations in the future, I will consciously check if I am taking statements in a negative sense. Furthermore, I will also try to understand the reason behind a demand proposed by the counterparty in a negotiation. 

In addition, I will decide in prior a timing that is suitable to switch negotiation strategy, instead of making reckless decision on the spot during negotiation. 

When choosing words in negotiation, it is also important to anticipate possible outcome of the words chosen and be careful in framing a particular point. With that, communication in negotiation can have less misunderstanding and less unnecessary sentiments.

2.2 Power in Negotiation

2.2.1 Description, Feelings and Evaluation

The second moment was when we were asked by Brussels Laser about how we could be sure that the Japanese supplier can ensure their quality and on-time delivery, we were stuck. The counterparty was being very sharp and I felt nervous because I had nothing in mind to answer to their question. 

After a moment of silence, we proposed to have a break. This decision was good because it allows us more time to think about the situation. It also served as a tool to cool down the negotiation atmosphere so that both parties can stay calm and objective. 

This made use of the “power of silence” and helped us achieved a better state for negotiation to carry on (Malow, n.d., 3) . However, noting the benefit of calling the break, we must admit that, the true reason behind the need for the break was our lack of preparation and over-confidence. 

We have overlooked the situation and failed to foresee potential rebuttals by the counterparty. Coupled with our reaction, I believe that the Brussels Laser team could tell that we were under-prepared. This provides them further room and power to bargain with us on the deal.  

2.2.2 Analysis

In that situation, there was a clear lack of expert power on our part, because we had not assembled useful information about the Japanese deal to support our stand that we can go for that deal if Brussels Laser did not agree on our terms. 

The lack of expert power put us in a weak position in our arguments. Furthermore, with the perception that we have a stronger power in the negotiation, we adopted the attitude of “all-or-nothing” , which is not an advised position to take in a negotiation (Watkins, 2002). 

Such attitude, while might work out in some unlikely circumstances, usually gives the impression of unwillingness to cooperate and gives rise to risk of being taken by surprise.

2.2.3 Conclusion

Thus, it can be concluded that power in negotiation is not only dependent on the facts, but also influenced by the negotiation dynamics and techniques used. There is not absolute position in negotiation power. 

In particular, the simulation outcome demonstrates that even though we are presumed to have greater power in the first place, our lack of preparation and wrong choice of tactics turned the situation around and we became more passive in the negotiation outcome.

2.2.4 Personal Action Plan

In the future, I will conduct comprehensive preparation for a negotiation, especially in terms of anticipating potential problems asked by the counterparty. In addition, I will prepare possible options to work out, instead of adopting an “all-or-nothing” approach, which is usually unproductive.

3. Lessons learnt

From this simulation exercise, I have learnt a few lessons.

3.1  Understanding your Opponents

As an intercultural negotiator, I need to understand the interests and concerns of the counterparty. By understanding the interests/desires of the counterparty, I can anticipate what they will be asking for in the negotiation. 

On the other hand, by understanding their concerns, I can show empathy to earn trust from them, as well as propose solutions that are more mutually beneficial. Furthermore, I need to be prepared for questions in order to avoid situation of not being able to answer question. 

This is because, when such situation occurs, it reflects badly on me as a negotiator and might affect my performance in the negotiation process.

3.2  Communication Style

On top of all these, communication style is of the most importance in a negotiation. This is because the communication process is a complicated model, where various processes are involved and various external factors can influence the outcome (Petersonet al., 2016, 430). 

This is especially important for an intercultural negotiator to take note of. Cultural differences can bring a lot of uncertainties in a negotiation process (Costin, 2015, 190). Cultural differences result in different expectation and interpretation, which could result in misalignment between the message sent by the sender and the message received by the receiver and hence ineffective communication outcome. 

Therefore, as an intercultural negotiator, I need to be mindful on my communication style, because this is the backbone for successful negotiation.

3.3 Be a Teamplayer 

As a teamplayer, I have learnt that when going for negotiation as a team, it is important to reach a consensus among team members before the negotiation. This helps to ensure effective conversations by avoiding conflicting opinions in negotiation. 

It is also crucial to develop mutual trust among team members as we need to have confidence in other members to believe that they will be able to deliver what the team desire. If there is no trust, there could be interruptions in speaking and these could cause confusions and ineffectiveness.

本篇范文詳細描述了一場原本以為十拿九穩的商業談判之后的reflections,作為主要的談判官我在這個過程中并沒有輕易地拿下我們的供應商,主要的問題在于兩點:

第一,我被自己的負面情緒所影響,導致過早的把談判引入了一種較為極端的方向。而當我們的供貨商并沒有被我們的策略所嚇倒而是非常自信的向我們保證沒有任何其他公司可以在我們要求的時間內完全替代他們時,我才意識到我犯的第二個錯誤。

那就是在談判之前沒有對于替補的日本公司做詳細的研究和準備充足的數據來支撐我們的談判策略,這導致我們無法自信地告訴Brussels Laser的人我們已經和其他的公司談妥了條件。這兩個錯誤最終導致我們不得不退一步,支付一部分的加急費,因為我們確實不能百分百確定備選的日本公司可以提供和目前供應商一樣水準的配件。

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