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Paper代寫案例-西方心理學學派

發布時間:2020-03-16 15:46:26 閱讀:1620

案例簡介

  • 作者:致遠教育
  • 導讀: 本文是一篇paper代寫范文案例,這篇paper主要討論了西方心理學學派。西方的科學和文明,多是基于實踐統計和哲學思考,且更重實踐。所以,其心理學的發展和完善,主要也是建立在實踐的基礎上,通過大量實踐得出理論,也因此出現了很多學派。
  • 字數:1835字
  • 預計閱讀時間:4分鐘

案例詳情

本文是一篇paper代寫范文案例,題目為:Western school of psychology,這篇paper主要討論了西方心理學學派。西方的科學和文明,多是基于實踐統計和哲學思考,且更重實踐。所以,其心理學的發展和完善,主要也是建立在實踐的基礎上,通過大量實踐得出理論,也因此出現了很多學派,同時不同時期某一學派也會被后來者質疑甚至推翻,人的認知往往有個過程,而且實踐受限于時代和外部條件。普通西方科學的發展,理論不斷進步甚至革新。

Before science was booming, psychology was robust. Psychology belongs to the category of philosophy. As a behavioral science dedicated to studying the changes of people's inner activities, it originated from the west at first. Specifically, as early as 2000 years ago in ancient Greece, psychology was a branch of philosophy at that time.

在科學蓬勃發展之前,心理學是很強大的。心理學屬于哲學范疇。作為一門致力于研究人的內心活動變化的行為科學,它最初起源于西方。具體來說,早在2000年前的古希臘,心理學是當時哲學的一個分支。

Western psychology originated in ancient Greece, because the philosophers Aristotle and Plato at that time devoted themselves to thinking about philosophy and promoting the development of philosophy, so as to develop the new realm of psychology.

西方心理學起源于古希臘,因為當時的哲學家亞里士多德和柏拉圖致力于哲學的思考,促進哲學的發展,從而開拓心理學的新領域。

Plato divided people into two parts, the soul and the body. Aristotle, on the other hand, believes that human beings are able to carry out all life activities different from animals, because human heart keeps beating, human organs work and human brain thinks, and these knowledge analyzed and guided goes into the heart, thus forming changes in psychological activities. Deeply guided by idealism, he believed that all human actions are arbitrary and controlled by the heart, so that the scientific psychological research was gradually dominated by the Christian god, and the research on psychology gradually went to the bottleneck. However, it was not until the industrial revolution in the 17th century and the development of modern science that psychology broke away from the Christian way of thinking and established scientific theories.

柏拉圖把人分成兩部分,靈魂和身體。另一方面,亞里士多德認為,人類能夠執行所有不同于動物的生命活動,因為人類的心臟一直在跳動,人類的器官在工作,人類的大腦在思考,這些知識被分析和引導進入心臟,從而形成心理上的變化?;顒?。在理想主義的深刻引導下,他認為人的一切行為都是武斷的,都是由心來控制的,使科學心理學研究逐漸被基督教的上帝所主宰,心理學研究逐漸走向瓶頸。然而,直到17世紀的工業革命和現代科學的發展,心理學才擺脫了基督教的思維方式,建立了科學理論。

From the British "empirical psychology" to the developmental "associative psychology" of Locke and Hume, to the "rationalist psychology" proposed by Descartes and wolff of Germany at the same time, it finally developed into "competency-based psychology". From the 18th century to the 19th century, with the rapid development of western medicine and physical physiology, it has exerted a great influence on western psychology. Among them, there is a view that psychology should be originated not in philosophy but in physiology. In the middle of the 19th century, with the emergence of von ter, modern scientific psychology was finally born. Wilhelm wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in the world, which makes the psychologists are coming in of the world, to jointly study and learning, so the study on the philosophy of psychology is no longer the former simple categories, have a scientific basis for the field of psychology category, devoid of meditation of the study of human psychology, formed a complete system of structuralism psychology, this is the enormous development and epochal milestone in the history of psychology.

從英國“經驗心理學”到洛克、休謨的發展“聯想心理學”,再到德國笛卡爾、沃爾夫提出的“理性主義心理學”,最終發展為“能力本位心理學”。從18世紀到19世紀,隨著西方醫學和生理學的飛速發展,它對西方心理學產生了巨大的影響。其中,有一種觀點認為心理學不應該起源于哲學,而應該起源于生理學。19世紀中葉,隨著馮特的出現,現代科學心理學終于誕生。威廉旺特建立了世界上第一個心理實驗室,使心理學家們來到世界各地,共同學習和學習,因此對心理學哲學的研究不再是以前的簡單范疇,對心理學領域有著科學的依據。范疇,沒有對人類心理學研究的冥想,形成了一個完整的結構主義心理學體系,這是心理學史上巨大的發展和劃時代的里程碑。

Through laboratory experiments, American psychologist Watson observed the behavior of rats and learned that although humans could not fully grasp the thought of rats, they could control their behavior. Behavior is actually the derivative of consciousness, so psychology can also play a role in prediction, so as to achieve a certain purpose. In the experiment, Watson also found that once the subject was stimulated during the experiment, only analyzing its external behaviors could achieve these goals, and only effective stimulation and guidance were needed to complete the purpose of artificial control. So we put forward a series of new scientific basis and formed theories and methods. While Watson advocated behaviorist psychology, gestalt psychology advocated by German psychologist wertheimer and others was born in Europe on the other side of the ocean.

Wittheimer published papers on the phenomenon of "simulacities", opposed the constructivism theory, and established the gestalt psychology. He believed that objects in the eyes of human beings were not as simple as they thought, but simply represented by simple points and lines, which were a comprehensive reflection of the whole.

Freud believed that human consciousness is in three levels, namely, the consciousness of active thinking and action, the forgotten "pre-consciousness" and the "unconscious" which is usually suppressed under the consciousness and does not show. So it is divided into several different forms, so in this case, the mental state is a new psychological concept formed according to the psychological characteristics of different periods. Jung thought that there are two kinds of unconscious, divided into individual unconscious and collective unconscious theory. After more than one hundred years of development, western psychology has exerted a great influence on western society and countries, which is mainly formed by the joint efforts of many psychologists, and has also exerted a great influence on the psychological research in China.

Western science and civilization are mostly based on practical statistics and philosophical thinking, with more emphasis on practice. Therefore, the development and improvement of its psychology is mainly based on practice, and theories are obtained through a lot of practice. Therefore, many schools have emerged, and a certain school in different periods will be questioned or even overturned by later generations. Human cognition often has a process, and practice is limited by times and external conditions. The development of common western science, the theory advances ceaselessly even innovate. Chinese culture, on the other hand, has been established in the beginning with a consistent tao and a metaphysical ideological foundation, which emphasizes the unity of man and nature and the unity of the universe and me. On this basis, various academic schools have been derived, but they are unified with this tao, so all changes remain the same. In short, this tao is derived from the ancient Chinese people's observation of the natural universe. It has been passed down for thousands of years and has not declined. The whole Chinese civilization is also based on it.

Chinese culture advocates solving psychological problems from the fundamental point of cultivating one's morality and cultivating one's character, and holds that all psychological problems are internal and external problems of human nature, and the solutions come down to tao and ethics derived from tao. The starting point for solving the problem is to start from the root, from the root. Since western psychology comes from practice, it can go directly into practice. Some methods are concise and effective, and can directly solve problems or explain phenomena. At the same time, it is closely related to physiological research. This is one of the reasons why western psychology has a certain influence on Chinese psychology, so Chinese psychology takes its essence to discard its dregs and forms modern psychology.

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