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史上最全APA與MLA格式區別分析

發布時間:2020-04-02 14:33:35 閱讀:15147 作者:致遠教育 字數:4608 字 預計閱讀時間:16分鐘
導讀:很多留學生在寫論文作業都會被APA格式和MLA格式搞得頭皮發麻,兩者的區別也是混淆分不清,為了幫助大家區分兩種格式的寫作方法,本文致遠教育小編就總結了非常全面的APA與MLA兩者之間的區別分析,文章較長,字數較多,但是幾乎涵蓋了所有的引用來源,希望大家慢慢消化。

很多留學生在寫論文作業都會被APA格式和MLA格式搞得頭皮發麻,兩者的區別也是混淆分不清,為了幫助大家區分兩種格式的寫作方法,本文致遠教育小編就總結了非常全面的APA與MLA兩者之間的區別分析,文章較長,字數較多,但是幾乎涵蓋了所有的引用來源,希望大家慢慢消化。

APA與MLA格式區別

1.1.1  引用整篇文獻的觀點

引用整篇文獻(即全書或全文)觀點時有兩種情況,一種是作者的姓氏在正文中沒有出現,如:

MLA:

Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor).

APA:

Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990).

另一種情況是作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出現,按MLA的規范不需要使用括號夾注,如:

MLA:

Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.

而按APA的規范則沒有必要在括號夾注中重復作者的姓,如:

APA:

Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (1990).

如果作者的姓氏和文獻出版年份均已在正文同一句中出現,按APA的規范不需使用括號夾注,如:

APA:

In a 1990 article, Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.

 在英文撰寫的論文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括號夾注中只需用漢語拼音標明作者的姓氏,不得使用漢字,如:

MLA:(Zhu 12) 

APA: (Zhang, 2005) 

1.1.2  引用文獻中具體觀點或文字

 引用文獻中某一具體觀點或文字時必須注明該觀點或者該段文字出現的頁碼,沒有頁碼是文獻引用不規范的表現。例如:

MLA:

Ancient writers attributed the invention of the monochord to Pythagoras, who lived in the sixth century BC (Marcuse 197).

Monasteries in medieval Europe were not short of speculations about Greek inventions (Marcuse 190-203).

APA:

Emily Bronte “expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social” (Taylor, 1988, p. 11).

Newmark (1988, pp. 39-40) notes three characteristically expressive text-types: (a) serious imaginative literature (e.g. lyrical poetry); (b) authoritative statements (political speeches and documents, statutes and legal documents, philosophical and academic works by acknowledged authorities); (c) autobiography, essays, personal correspondence (when these are personal effusions).

注意在這些例子中引文超過一頁時的頁碼標記方法:MLA的規范是(Marcuse 190-203),而 APA的規范是(1988, pp. 39-40)。

 假若作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出現,則不需要在括號夾注中重復,如:

MLA:

Ancient writers, according to Marcuse, attributed the invention of the monochord to Pythagoras, who lived in the sixth century BC (197).

APA:

Taylor writes that Emily Bronte “expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social” (1988, p. 11).

1.1.3  引用多位作者寫作的同一文獻

MLA(二至三位作者):

Among intentional spoonerisms, the “punlike metathesis of distinctive features may serve to weld together words etymologically unrelated but close in their sound and meaning” (Jakobson and Waugh 304).

(如果有三位作者,在括號夾注中應用逗號分隔他們的姓氏,如:(Alton, Davies, and Rice 56)。)

MLA(三位以上的作者):

The study was extended for two years, and only after results were reviewed by an independent panel did the researchers publish their findings (Blaine et al. 35).

APA(兩位作者):

Research (Yamada & Matsuura, 1982) reports the poor performance of advanced English learners who could use English articles correctly only in 70 percent of the cases. 

注意兩種規范的括號夾注中分別使用“and”與“&”。

APA(三至五位作者)

第一次引用:

According to educational psychologists, raising children is a responsibility of the entire community (Franklin, Childs, & Smith, 1995). 

以后的引用:

To be successful, “communities must be willing to take this responsibility” (Franklin et al., 1995, p. 135).

APA(五位以上的作者):

Patterns of byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas et al., 2003) 

1.1.4  引用同樣姓氏的不同作者

 假若兩個或兩個以上的作者有同樣的姓氏,則括號夾注中應同時使用他們名字的首字母,如: 

MLA:

Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).

APA:

Well-established SLA researchers (e.g., R. Ellis, 2002) seem rather skeptical of the assertion that repetition alone explains the development of the knowledge of a second language (N. Ellis, 2002). 

 引用中文著作或期刊時同姓作者的情況較多,應在括號夾注中使用他們名字的首字母加以區分,如: 

MLA:(S.R. Wang 26)  (J.X. Wang 30)

APA:(W.Y. Wang, 2003)  (L.F. Wang, 2003, p. 213)

1.1.5  引用團體作者(corporate author)

引用團體作者的作品,括號夾注中應使用團體的名稱,如: 

MLA:

It was apparent that the American health care system needed “to be fixed and perhaps radically modified” (Public Agenda Foundation 4).

APA:

Retired officers retain access to all of the university's educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54). 

1.1.6  引用無作者文獻

 引用無作者文獻,如果文獻標題沒有出現在正文里,則括號夾注中應使用該標題或者(如果標題過長的話)使用該標題中的關鍵詞組,如: 

MLA:An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional (“Wordsworth Is A Loser” 100).

APA:(“Mad Cow,” 2001) 或者 (Sleep Medicine, 2001)

 在使用關鍵詞組時應該選擇標題開始部分的詞組。

 無論是MLA還是APA的規范,獨立出版物的標題或者標題中的關鍵詞組用斜體標出,出版物內含的作品的名稱以及未出版的作品(講演、論文等)的標題或者標題中的關鍵詞組用引號標出。 

1.1.7  引用書信、談話中的觀點或文字

書信和談話(含電子郵件、訪談、電話等)無法在正文后面的參考文獻中列出,但應該在正文中使用括號夾注的方法注明出處。例如:

MLA:

Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, May 12, 1989) admitted the need for an in-depth analysis of the otherness expressed in the work.

APA:

Mira Ariel (e-mail, April 17, 2004) confirmed that accessibility marking played a crucial role in discourse organization.  

Researchers may observe that Chinese English majors with no overseas experience often have a better command of English than American foreign language majors with no overseas experience have of the language they study (Eugene Nida, personal communication, November 8, 1986).

APA和MLA區別

1.1.8  引用同一作者的多篇文獻

 按MLA規范,引用同一作者的多篇文獻時,在括號夾注中應加入文獻標題中的關鍵詞組,如:

Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (“Hand-Eye Development” 17). 

或者

Computers are not useful tools for small children (Lightenor, “Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (Lightenor, “Hand-Eye Development” 17). 

或者

Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children, though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (“Too Soon” 38 and “Hand-Eye Development” 17). 

 按APA規范,同一作者的不同文獻可用出版年份來區別,如:

(Zhang, 1997)  (Zhang, 1999)  (Zhang, 2004) 

括號夾注還可以表示同一作者的多篇文獻,文獻按發表次序排列,如:

(Zhang, 1997, 1999, 2004) 

同一年份發表的文獻應對年份另加字母,以示區別(正文后參考文獻著錄中相應的條目里的年份應加同樣的字母),如:

 (Bloom, 2003a, 2003b) 

1.1.9  同時引用不同作者的多篇文獻

 括號夾注可以包括不同作者的多篇文獻,文獻按作者姓氏的字母順序排列(注意分號的使用),如:

MLA:

The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams 30).

APA:

Distance from health care providers, lack of transportation, lack of health care providers, lack of information about the disease and various treatment options, poverty and social isolation due to geography are all factors which affect treatment decisions of rural clients (Brown, 2001; Sullivan, Weinert & Fulton, 1993; Weinert & Burman, 1994).

 在MLA的規范中,如果不同作者的多篇文獻過于冗長,則不用括號夾注,而使用腳注(見第3.1.12節)。

1.1.10  引用非直接文獻(indirect source)

 論文應盡可能避免使用非直接文獻(即二級文獻secondary source),但在無法找到直接文獻(即一級文獻primary source)的情況下,引文可以從非直接文獻中析出,例如:

MLA:

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450).

(注意:“qtd. in”中的字母“i”不得大寫。)

APA:

Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996, p. 135) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability.

One researcher (Grayson, as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996, p. 135) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability.

 引用非直接文獻以后,在正文后參考文獻著錄中只需列入該非直接文獻的條目(即上述實例中的“Boswell”和“Murzynski & Degelman, 1996”)。

1.1.11  引用文學作品和經典文獻

按MLA的規范,有幾種情況括號夾注內不標頁碼。

在引用劇本時應標出引文的幕、場、行,如: 

In his famous advice to players, Shakespeare’s Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, “whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as ‘twere, the mirror up to nature” (3.2.21-23).

這里的括號夾注表示引文來自劇本第三幕第二場的21至23行。(注意標點的使用。)

 在引用詩歌時應標出引文的節、行,如:

When Homer’s Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men “mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil” (10.209-11).

這里的括號夾注表示引文來自詩歌第10節的209至211行。對不分節的詩第一次引用時應說明括號里標的是行數,使用“line”,以后的引用則不需再說明。例如:

 第一次引用:(lines 5-8)

 以后的引用:(12-13)

 在引用有章節、分冊的小說的時候,應標出引文所在的頁碼、冊數、章節,如:

One of Kingsolver’s narrators, teenager Rachel, pushes her vocabulary beyond its limits. For example, Rachel complains that being forced to live in the Congo with her missionary family is “a sheer tapestry of justice” because her chances of finding a boyfriend are “dull and void” (117; bk. 2, ch. 10).

例子里的括號夾注表示引文來自該書第二冊第十章的第117頁。(注意標點和縮略語的使用。)

 在引用《圣經》、《可蘭經》等經典文獻的時候,應標出引文的篇、章、節,如:

Consider the words of Solomon: “If your enemies are hungry, give them food to eat. If they are thirsty, give them water to drink” (Bible, Prov. 25.21).

例子里的括號夾注表示引文來自舊約《圣經》的《箴言》篇第25章第21節?!妒ソ洝犯髌目s寫有標準的寫法,因而使用時應該注意核對。

1.1.12  對引語文字的更改

 直接引語如出現在正文中間,使用引語的句子不得違反英語語法,不得出現“句中句”。圖3.1右邊一欄兩句句子均包含了引語,但均不合語法。

正確:

So it is not like what Luthi calls “enter[ing] effortlessly into fruitful contact with distant worlds” (63). 

正確:

Max Luthi points out that the first apparent thing in the fairytale is that it portrays its hero as “isolated” and often as “an old child” (59).  錯誤:

So it is not like what Luthi calls “enter effortlessly into fruitful contact with distant worlds” (63).  

錯誤:

Max Luthi points out: “The first thing that is apparent in the fairytale …is that it portrays its hero as isolated. He is often an old child” (59).  

 為了使含直接引語的句子合乎語法,往往有必要對引語的文字作一定的更改。如果要刪除引語中個別詞句,可以用省略號(ellipses“…”)取代刪除的詞句。如果要加入或者更改個別單詞或者詞組,則可以將需要加入或者更改的單詞或詞組放在方括號(square brackets“[ ]”)以內。例如:

刪除詞句:

He stated, “The ‘placebo effect,’ ... disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Smith, 1982, p. 276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

添加詞組:

Smith (1982:276) found that “the placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [his own and others’] behaviors were studied in this manner.”

 無論刪改還是添加字詞均不得變更引語的原意。

 注意:如果刪除是在句內,應該空一格以后再加省略號。如果刪除是在一句整句以后,則應在該整句最后的標點(句號、問號或驚嘆號)不空格直接加省略號。省略號應該用三個句點。

1.1.13  腳注(footnotes)的使用

在MLA的規范里,腳注只應在下列兩種情況中考慮使用:(1)提供有一定重要性、但寫入正文將有損文本條理和邏輯的解釋性信息;(2)提供因篇幅過大不宜使用括號夾注注明的文獻出處信息。在APA的規范里腳注僅僅在上述第一種情況下可以使用。腳注應該使用阿拉伯數字編號上標,每頁重新開始。在下面兩個例子中,前一個屬第一種情況,后一種屬第二種情況: 

The commentary of the sixteenth-century literary scholars Bernardo Segni and Lionardo Salviati shows them to be less-than-faithful followers of Aristotle1.

….

Technological advancements have brought advantages as well as unexpected problems2.

————————————— Notes

1 Examples are conveniently available in Weinberg. See Segni, Rettorica et poetica d'Aristotile (Firenze, 1549) 281, qtd. in Weinberg 1:405, and Salviati, Poetica d'Aristotle parafrasata e comnetata, 1586, ms. 2.2.11, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Firenze, 140v, qtd. in Weinberg 1:616-17.

2 For a sampling of materials that reflect the range of experiences related to recent technological changes, see Moulthrop, pars. 39-53; Armstrong, Yang, and Cuneo 80-82; Craner 308-11.

(第二個例子中“Moulthrop, pars. 39-53”中的“pars”指的是“段落”即paragraph。)

在腳注中提到的文獻同正文中提到的一樣,都必須在正文后面的參考文獻著錄中詳細注明。

腳注可使用單倍行距,但相鄰腳注之間應空1.5行。腳注的字體必須與正文一樣。

apa和mla格式區別

1.2 參考文獻著錄的格式

參考文獻著錄在MLA規范里叫做Works Cited,在APA規范里叫做References。撰寫論文時應仔細閱讀MLA或APA的規范手冊,本節僅提供部分著錄實例,供參考。

1.2.1  著錄已出版的文章

一位作者寫的文章

MLA:

Stewart, Donald C. “What Is an English Major, and What Should It Be?” College Composition and Communication 40 (1989): 188-202.

APA:

Roediger, H. L. (1990). Implicit memory: A commentary. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28, 373-380.

 注意:(1)在MLA規范里,作者的姓名應完整,應標明首名的全稱和中間名的首字母。在APA里,作者的首名和中間名均應用首字母。(2)在MLA規范里,期刊名與期刊卷數之間不用逗號。(3)在APA規范里期刊的卷數(即“28”)應用斜體表示。(4)按MLA的規范,標題第一個詞和冒號后第一個詞的首字母均必須大寫,而其余每一個詞的首字母,除冠詞、介詞、并列連詞以及不定式符號(“to”)以外都必須大寫。按APA的規范,標題第一個詞和冒號后第一個詞的首字母必須大寫,而其余每一個詞的首字母,除專有名詞以外,均不需要大寫。

兩位作者寫的文章

MLA:

Brownell, Hiram H., and Heather H. Potter. “Inference Deficits in Right-Brain Damaged Patients.” Brain and Language 27 (1986): 310-21.

APA:

Tulving, E., & Schacter, D. L. (1990). Priming and human memory systems. Science, 247, 301-305.

兩位以上的作者寫的文章

MLA:

Mascia-Lees, Frances E., Pat Sharpe, and Colleen B. Cohen. “Double Liminality and the Black Woman Writer.” American Behavioral Scientist 31 (1987): 101-14.

APA:

Barringer, H. R., Takeuchi, D. T., & Xenos, P. C. (1990). Education, occupational prestige and income of Asian Americans: Evidence from the 1980 Census. Sociology of Education, 63, 27-43.

 無論用MLA 還是APA,第一作者以姓氏開始(加上逗號),繼以名字或者名字的首字母,但是從第二作者開始,在MLA規范里以名字開始,繼以姓氏,而在APA規范里以姓氏開始(加上逗號),繼以名字的首字母。

 如果作者人數超過三人,也可以考慮僅保留第一作者的名字,加上et al.(拉丁文 “and others”),如:

MLA:

Mascia-Lees, Frances E., et al. “Double Liminality and the Black Woman Writer.” American Behavioral Scientist 31 (1987): 101-14.

APA:

Barringer, H. R. et at. (1990). Education, occupational prestige and income of Asian Americans: Evidence from the 1980 Census. Sociology of Education, 63, 27-43.

書評、影評、電視節目評論等(Review) 

MLA:

Kidd, John. “The Scandal of Ulysses.” Rev. of Ulysses: The Corrected Text, by Hans Walter Gabler. New York Review of Books 30 June 1988: 32-39.

APA:

Falk, J. S. (1990). [Review of Narratives from the crib]. Language, 66, 558-562.

收集在書籍中的文章(Selection from an edited book) 

MLA:

Glover, David. “The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of: Masculinity, Femininity, and the Thriller.” Gender, Genre and Narrative Pleasure. Ed. Derek Longhurst. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. 67-83.

APA:

Wilson, S. F. (1990). Community support and integration: New directions for outcome research. In S. Rose (Ed.), Case management: An overview and assessment (pp. 13-42). White Plains, NY: Longman.

 注意:(1)“Ed.”代表“編”。(2)在MLA規范中,書的編者的姓和名均用全稱,在APA規范里,編者的姓用全稱,名用首字母。

雜志中的文章

MLA:

Miller, Mark Crispen. “Massa, Come Home.” New Republic 16 Sept. 1981: 29-32.

APA:

Gibbs, N. (1989, April 24). How America has run out of time. Time, pp. 58-67.

 注意:著錄引用雜志中的文章應標明雜志的出版日期。

報紙中的文章

MLA:

“Literacy on the job.” USA Today 27 Dec. 1988: 6B. 

APA:

Freudenheim, M. (1987, December 29). Rehabilitation in head injuries in business and helath. New York Times, p. D2.

百科全書中的文章(An entry in an encyclopedia)

MLA:

Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987.

APA:

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

政府文件(A government publication)

MLA:

United States. Natl. Council on Disability. Promises to Keep: A Decade of Federal Enforcement of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Washington: GPO, 2000. 

APA:

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious  mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC:  U.S. Government Printing Office.

1.2.2  著錄已出版的書籍

一位作者寫的書籍

MLA:

Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.

APA:

Rossi, P. H. (1989). Down and out in America: The origins of homelessness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

注意不同規范里書籍標題大小寫規則的不同。

新版書(Book with a new edition)

MLA:

Erikson, Erik. Childhood and Society. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1963.

APA:

Kail, R. (1990). Memory development in children (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman.

團體作者(Book with a corporate author)寫的書籍

MLA:

College Board. College-bound Seniors: 1989 SAT Profile. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1989.

APA:

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

無作者書籍(Book with no author)

MLA:

Guidelines for the Workload of College English Teacher. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1987.

APA:

Standards for educational and psychological tests. (1985). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

編撰的書籍(Edited book)

MLA:

Kerckhove, Derrick de, and Charles J. Lumsden, eds. The Alphabet and the Brain: The Lateralization of Writing. Berlin Springer-¬Verlag, 1988.

APA:

Campbell, J. P., Campbell, R. J., & Associates. (Eds.). (1988). Productivity in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

翻譯的書籍(Translated book)

MLA:

Lacan, Jacques. Ecrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1977.

APA:

Michotte, A. E. (1963). The perception of causality (T. R. Miles & E. Miles, Trans.). London: Methuen. (Original work published 1946)

 注意在兩種規范里,翻譯者的名和姓均不需要改變次序。

重版書(Republished book)

MLA:

Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937.

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