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如何寫出優秀的英文學術論文?

發布時間:2020-12-10 10:49:03 閱讀:1276 作者:致遠教育 字數:2188 字 預計閱讀時間:7分鐘
導讀:鑒于英文版學術論文較之中文版更具挑戰,因此本文將從4個方面入手,著重給大家分享如何寫出一篇優秀的英文學術論文。

鑒于英文版學術論文較之中文版更具挑戰,因此本文將從4個方面入手,著重給大家分享如何寫出一篇優秀的英文學術論文。

英文學術論文寫作的特點

英文學術論文寫作的特點

1. 重點清晰:回答問題并表明對該主題的理解。

2. 結構化:連貫一致,具有邏輯,并將相關的觀點和材料結合起來。

3. 有證據支撐:證明對該主題領域的了解,以證據支持觀點和論據,并有準確合理的引用。

4. 正式的語調和風格:使用適當的語言和時態,語言清晰,簡潔。

了解了英文學術論文寫作的基本特點,接下來我們從以下四點具體展開。

1.論文的目的和目標讀者的確定

學術寫作的第一步是明確寫作的目的和受眾。通常,作者必須通過舉證清楚地表明要點,并以清晰和具有邏輯的方式撰寫全文,從解釋作者要說的內容開始,接著闡明其觀點,最后以總結結束。若學術論文中包含對他人作品的引用,這表明作者所表達的內容是建立在一定基礎上,即作者閱讀了其他學者的相關作品,也探索和研究過相關內容??傊?,在撰寫學術文章時應謹慎行事,以確保讀者想要了解的內容的質與量,并注意表明文章的客觀性。

2.文章整體結構的建立

古語道:兵馬未動,糧草先行。結構之于論文就猶如糧草之于兵馬。

通常撰寫論文前作者會“心有成竹”,即按照寫作計劃來創建寫作的結構。結構化寫作包括引言(Introduction),文章主體(Main Body) 和結論(Conclusion),并使用重點突出的段落來展開論證。引言(Introduction)概述了寫作的主要方向,并提供了必要的背景信息和上下文。文章主體(Main Body)中,每個要點都需被完整的呈現,并對其做深入的研究和進一步探索。這些要點必須具有清晰的邏輯,并且遣詞造句簡潔明了,便于讀者理解。結論(Conclusion)部分需要總結要點,并突出了作者希望讀者獲得的關鍵信息,還可以提出論點或觀點中可以進一步開展的研究或調查。

例子在這里 (以Conclusion部分為例)

Conclusions: Embracing Multiplicity and Future Directions

In this paper we have sought to contribute to debates around urban sustainability transitions by developing a way of understanding the variability and uneveness of urban infrastructure transitions on the ground. To do this, we discussed current trends in urban transitions research, offering a synthetic account of its development. Engaging with urban sustainable mobility, we highlighted the need for extending understandings in urban transitions approaches to better connect experimentation with systems and spaces, multi-level processes of urban governance and understandings of urban sustainability.

The paper set out the multiplicity of different possibilities that each of these opens up and which, in combinations, make the potential of urban sustainable mobility almost overwhelming. To address this, we developed a preliminary framework that embraced this variability. We highlighted the need for a focus on the form of reconfiguration, informed by multiple issues in a particular city. Recognising that without some order that each reconfiguration in a different city would remain specific we developed an analytical focus on three themes of reconfiguration to bring some commonality for analysis of reconfigurations.

We are aware of both the ambition and the limits of such a framework. In the confines of a paper, our contribution has been to develop a preliminary framework for researching urban transitions that builds from an existing body of literature and engages seriously with multiple radically contested concepts. But this is a first step. The primary tension our work speaks to is between the possibilities to inform change through technological and social innovations, which are many, and the grounded and fragmented capacity and capability to be able to shape change. We have sought to build a preliminary framework that engages with this tension productively. Rather than be overwhelmed by multiplicities and variabilities we embraced this through the concept of reconfiguration. We call for future research to engage with this framework.

In setting out the framework in the paper we have not had space to discuss its application. Methodologically, there are numerous ways in which this kind of contextual reconfiguration approach could be mobilised. But in particular, this focus would benefit from theoretically-informed ethnographic work. This would seek to illuminate both forms and processes of reconfiguration in individual cities. Empirical work would seek to understand reconfigurations drawing collectively on all three themes and what they add up to in individual cities. This kind of approach could be used to understand sustainable mobility and the city but also energy, water, waste and nexus approaches that seek to integrate them. Furthermore, there would also be benefit from undertaking comparative work assessing reconfigurations between different cities. This form of comparison would allow the building of typologies of forms and processes of reconfiguration in transitions to sustainable urban mobility (or energy, waste etc.). Such typologies would also contribute empirical insights back to further conceptual modifications of the framework.

Theoretical, conceptual and empirical work is needed to strengthen understanding of these unstable categories and how they interrelate. The danger is, that this instability leads to not knowing how to research such complexity. This framework, and our call for engaging with it, seeks to contribute to countering that.

英文學術論文寫作

3.結構化段落的使用

一篇學術論文想要條分縷析地陳述其詞,必少不了運用結構化的段落布局來構建和構造論點。通常,每個段落的第一句或第二句中會明確表達作者的觀點,以幫助讀者理解文章邏輯。緊跟于論點句后的其余部分應更詳細地解釋說明論點,并在必要時提供相關論據和例子。作者對這些論據的解釋將有助于證實其想法,并可以加強其論點。在段落的末尾,作者應該表明所提出的觀點對整體論點的重要性或與下一段的銜接。

另外,作者還可以使用信號詞來幫助讀者理解文章結構以及文中可能會出現的論點,如:

1. 表示添加更多信息: furthermore, moreover, additionally

例: This form of experimentation resonates with the concept of a niche in the MLP. There, additionally, remains the issue of how the 'same' generic niche is differentially embedded in a particular place.

2. 表示兩個相似觀點比較: similarly, in comparison

例: They point out that in actuality, 'distinctions between types of experiments are actually much more subtle and fluid'. Similarly, in their discussion of relationships between transitions management and local governance approaches JuliaWittmayer and colleagues engage with the issue of how sustainability in towns, cities and neighbourhoods is governed and how "sustainability is made meaningful locally in collaborative processes"

3. 表示相反觀點: however, in contrast, yet

例: Cities, and the networked infrastructures that sustain urban life, are seen as crucial sites for creating more sustainable futures. Yet, although there are many plans, the realisation of sustainable urban infrastructures on the ground is uneven.

4. 表示結論: therefore, consequently, as a result

例: The focus of the paper, therefore, is not just about widening experimental processes but also the relationships between them and local institutional contexts and sustainability discourses shaping them.

5. 表示強調: significantly, particularly

例: What is clear is that it is often not the artefact or technology that is particularly innovative. There is nothing particularly novel and innovative about a bike or a credit card-sized piece of plastic.

6. 表示前后順序: first, second, finally

例: First, we need to recognise that in re-shaping systems, experimental processes often cut across and reconfigure relationships between multiple systems (e.g., automobility, rail, bus, cycling). Second, a focus on both institutional concerns and processes of experimentation—rather than either—in multi-level urban governance processes is important. Third, competing conceptions of sustainability set out a range of possibilities about what kinds of infrastructure interventions are possible and desirable.

諸如以上詞語有助于作者構建一個更有效文章框架,有條不紊地層層深入,清晰地闡明論證的流程和邏輯。

4.句式語態的選擇

正所謂:"刪繁就簡三秋樹",在正式的學術論文中,簡潔十分重要,作者往往需要用簡練的筆墨來表現豐富且具有條理的內容,以期幫助讀者理解作者的觀點。

在句式選擇上,我們可采用以下方法:

1. 每個句子僅包含一個主要思想。

2. 句子要保持合理的長度 (通常不超過30個字)。

3. 避免重復。

4. 避免使用多余的詞。

另外,在論文中使用正確的時態和語氣也頗為重要。作者需要根據上下文使用不同的時態,連貫全文。

總結

英文學術論文寫作首先需要做到清晰簡潔 (clear),重點突出  (focused),結構清楚 (structured) 并且有足夠的論據支撐。其首要目的是幫助讀者理解。學術論文具有正式的語氣 (tone) 和參考文獻引用風格 (reference style),但其遣詞造句并不復雜,我們不需要使用長句子和復雜的詞匯。每個學科都有一定的寫作習慣和詞匯,大家可以在閱讀其他論文的過程中對其進行熟悉。論文結筆前,也不要忘記通讀一遍,認真修改,編輯和校對文章哦。

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