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7P行銷組合模型分析應用及范文案例

發布時間:2020-05-03 15:23:38 閱讀:8964 作者:致遠教育 字數:2029 字 預計閱讀時間:7分鐘
導讀:4P營銷組合模型是在marketing論文中常用的行銷模版,7P營銷組合在傳統的4P基礎上,即產品、價格、管道和促銷,又增加了3P,分別是人員(Participant)、有形展示(PhysicalEvidence)和過程管理(ProcessManagement)。本文就為大...

4P營銷組合模型是在marketing論文中常用的行銷模版,7P營銷組合在傳統的4P基礎上,即產品、價格、管道和促銷,又增加了3P,分別是人員(Participant)、有形展示(Physical Evidence)和過程管理(Process Management)。本文就為大家帶來7P行銷組合模型分析應用及范文案例。

麥卡錫在1964年提出4P行銷組合,即產品、價格、管道和促銷,他認為企業在做好市場調查之后,能夠賣出企業生產質量好的產品,并且訂定合理的價格,培養建立經銷商和銷售渠道,在透過不同的推廣方式促成交易,達成企業的行銷目標。行銷4P一直以來廣被全球的學術界與營銷人員采用,且是在marketing論文中常用的行銷模版。

4P行銷組合

1.產品(Product)

產品的種類、質量、設計、功能、包裝、大小、保固注重開發的功能,并且有獨特的賣點。

2.價格(Price)

消費者愿意對于產品付出的費用。根據不同的市場定位,制定不同的價格策略,產品的定價與企業的品牌戰略非常相關,價格就相對應著品牌的要帶給消費者的感覺。

3.渠道(Place)

消費者接觸到產品的方式或是渠道。產品從生產者轉嫁到消費者個人或組織企業團體,消費者購買或取得產品或服務的管道。

4.推廣(Promotion)

市場行銷者透過廣告、促銷、公共報道、與人員銷售等方式與消費者溝通,可以讓不同的群體可以了解產品。

4P是麥肯錫當時針對制造業設計,隨著時代的演變,市場從制造導向慢慢轉為全面消費者導向,服務業也突飛猛進的成長,于是布姆斯(Booms)和比特納(Bitner)將下面3個P增加到了原有的4P營銷組合中。7P營銷組合在傳統的4P基礎上,即產品、價格、管道和促銷,又增加了3P,分別是人員(Participant)、有形展示(Physical Evidence)和過程管理(Process Management)。

7P行銷組合

5.人員(Participant)

在營銷組合里,意指人為元素,扮演著傳遞與接受服務的角色。換言之,也就是公司的服務人員與顧客。在現代營銷實踐中,公司的服務人員極為關鍵,他(她)們可以完全影響顧客對服務質量的認知與喜好。尤其是服務業,人員素質參差不齊,服務表現的質量就無法達到一致的要求。人員也包括未購買及已購買服務的顧客。營銷經理人不僅要處理公司與已購顧客之間的互動關系還得兼顧未購顧客的行為與態度。

6.有形展示(Physical Evidence)

可以解釋為:商品與服務本身的展示亦即使所促銷的東西更加貼近顧客。有形展示的重要性在于顧客能從中得到可觸及的線索,去體認你所提供的服務質量。因此,最好的服務是將無法觸及的東西變成有形的服務。

7.過程管理(Process Management)

這里的過程是指,顧客獲得服務前所必經的過程。進一步說,如果顧客在獲得服務前必須排隊等待,那么這項服務傳遞到顧客手中的過程,時間的耗費即為重要的考慮因素。

下面以Tesco為例進行7P Analysis,供大家參考學習。

Tesco Marketing mix

Product in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco provides a wide range of products that include food, clothing, electronics, financial services etc. This ever-expanding, product line caters to every possible need of its consumers and has thus expanded into the online marketing sector too! It offers grocery delivery service and free music downloads besides the other 40,000 or more product lines that its retail stores exhibit.

樂購提供的產品種類繁多,包括食品、服裝、電子產品、金融服務等。這一不斷擴大的產品線迎合了消費者的每一種可能需求,因此也擴展到了網絡營銷領域!除了零售店展示的其他40000條或更多產品線外,它還提供雜貨店送貨服務和免費音樂下載。

Price in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco attempts to maintain as low prices as possible without reducing the quality of its products or running itself in loss. In order to pass all cost advantages to its customers and keep them happy, it uses a number of measures which includes the economies of scale it enjoys.

樂購試圖保持盡可能低的價格,而不降低產品質量,也不讓自己陷入虧損。為了將所有成本優勢傳遞給客戶并讓他們滿意,它采用了許多措施,其中包括它所享有的規模經濟。

特易購產品

Place in the Marketing mix of Tesco

It is headquartered in Chestnut, Hertfordshire, England. Its stores are spread far and wide in the world. It employs two main channels of distribution for its products and services – online and offline.

總部位于英國赫特福德郡的切斯特納特。它的商店遍布世界各地。它的產品和服務有兩個主要的分銷渠道——線上和線下。

Promotions in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco’s biggest advantage is its low prices. This is what sets it apart from other supermarket chains. And this is what it uses to enhance its brand image. Its major objective has always been to improve its brand image by reducing costs and being true to its words while maximizing its profit. To this end, it makes use of television advertisements, offers promotional discounts, sponsors charitable events, uses point of sale strategies and so on.

特易購最大的優勢是價格低廉。這就是它區別于其他連鎖超市的原因。這就是它用來提升品牌形象的方法。它的主要目標一直是通過降低成本、信守承諾、實現利潤最大化來提升品牌形象。為此,它利用電視廣告、提供促銷折扣、贊助慈善活動、使用銷售點策略等。

Physical evidence in the Marketing mix of Tesco

The Tesco stores are not overly elaborate like those of Sainsbury and other grocery stores. This is because Tesco doesn’t see the point in spending more than the necessary amount of money on furbishing its stores. Having said this, all its stores are clean attractive. They are easy to navigate with all products well categorized and easy to find. Offers are also placed such that they lure customers into buying more than what they need, all the while feeling that they are in fact conserving their financial resources. The Tesco Website is also simple and easy to operate.

特易購的商店不像塞恩斯伯里和其他雜貨店那樣精心設計。這是因為樂購認為,花在商店裝修上的錢沒有必要超過必要的數額。說到這里,它所有的商店都很干凈,很吸引人。它們易于導航,所有產品分類良好,易于查找。優惠也會吸引顧客購買比他們需要的更多的東西,同時感覺他們實際上是在節約他們的財政資源。樂購網站也簡單易操作。

特易購商場環境

People in the Marketing mix of Tesco

Tesco’s excellent sales assistants are also greatly responsible for its success. It uses programs such as Colleague Privilege card, Save As You Earn, and Buy As You Earn to gain the loyalty of its workers. Its employees are highly competent and well-compensated for their contributions to making Tesco a success.

樂購優秀的銷售助理也對其成功負有很大責任。它使用諸如“同事特權卡”、“按收入儲蓄”和“按收入購買”等計劃來獲得員工的忠誠度。它的員工非常稱職,他們為特易購的成功所做的貢獻得到了很好的補償。

Process in the Marketing mix of Tesco

The Process aspect of a marketing mix in Tesco’s case refers to the process of keeping its customers happy by speedy billing services and easy acquirement of products in its stores offline as well as online. Tesco achieves this by employing competent staff and paying attention to customer grievances and addressing issues that create them.

在特易購的案例中,營銷組合的流程方面指的是通過快速的賬單服務和輕松地在其商店中離線和在線購買產品來保持客戶滿意的流程。樂購通過雇傭稱職的員工,關注客戶的不滿情緒,解決產生不滿情緒的問題來實現這一目標。

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