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英文Essay寫作句型庫分享

發布時間:2020-07-31 13:29:41 閱讀:1757 作者:致遠教育 字數:2701 字 預計閱讀時間:9分鐘
導讀:句型是我們在英文Essay寫作中可以直接套用的。約翰·莫萊羅指出:“句型在性質上是內容中立和通用的。因此,在使用它們時,你并沒有偷竊他人的想法,這并不構成剽竊?!? 分類使用經過人們提煉的句型,我們可以只專注于填寫內容,提高寫作效率,規范學術語言,減少語法錯誤。

句型是我們在英文Essay寫作中可以直接套用的。約翰·莫萊羅指出:“句型在性質上是內容中立和通用的。因此,在使用它們時,你并沒有偷竊他人的想法,這并不構成剽竊。”  分類使用經過人們提煉的句型,我們可以只專注于填寫內容,提高寫作效率,規范學術語言,減少語法錯誤。

英文Essay寫作句型

本文分享兩部英文Essay寫作句型并給出部分示例,第一部是免費網頁版著作(也提供可下載的電子版,最新下載電子版需要付費),第二部是付費著作(含電子版和印刷版)。

第一部

作者:約翰·莫萊羅

約翰·莫萊羅(John Morley)是曼徹斯特大學全大學語言項目主任。該句型庫分兩大部分。第一部分包含六大類,分別是:

引言(Introducing Work)

文獻引用(Referring to Sources)

描述方法(Describing Methods)

報道結果(Reporting Results)

討論發現(Discussing Findings)

寫結論(Writing Conclusions)

每一大類還分成若干子類。例如,結果報道的句型分為11個子類,詳細見下方:

Reporting Results

1 Reference to aim or method

Changes in X and Y were compared using ….

Simple statistical analysis was used to ….

To assess X, the Y questionnaire was used.

To distinguish between these two possibilities, ….

T-tests were used to analyse the relationship between ….

In order to assess Z, repeated-measures ANOVAs were used.

Regression analysis was used to predict the….

The average scores of X and Y were compared in order to …

Nine items on the questionnaire measured the extent to which ….

The correlation between X and Y was tested.

The first set of analyses examined the impact of ….

To compare the scores three weeks after initial screening, a global ANOVA F-test was used.

A scatter diagram and a Pearson’s product moment correlation were used to determine the relationship between ….

2 Referring to data in a table or chart

1 Table 1 or Figure 1 shows (compares, presents,provides)

an overview of ….

the experimental data on X.

the summary statistics for ….

the breakdown of X according to ….

the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of X.

the intercorrelations among the nine measures of X.

2 The table below illustrates or The piechart above shows

some of the main characteristics of the ….

the breakdown of ….

3 As shown in Figure 1 ( As can be seenfrom  Table 1, It can be seen from thedata in Table 1 that, From the graph above we can see that), the X groupreported significantly more Y than the other two groups.

4 The results obtained from the preliminaryanalysis of X (The results of the correlational analysis, The themes identifiedin these responses)

are shown

can be compared

are presented

are set out

are summarised

in Table 1 (in Figure 1).

3 Highlighting significant data in a table or chart

It is apparent from this table that very few ….

This table is quite revealing in several ways. First, unlike the other tables …..

What is interesting in this data is that ….

In Fig.10 there is a clear trend of decreasing ….

As Table III shows, there is a significant difference (t = -2.15, p = 0.03) between the two groups.

The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4

From the chart, it can be seen that by far the greatest demand is for ….

From the data in Figure 9, it is apparent that the length of time left between ….

From this data, we can see that Study 2 resulted in the lowest value of ….

Data from this table can be compared withthe data in Table 4.6 which shows ….

4 Statements of positive result

Strong evidence of X was found when ….

This result is significant at the p = 0.05level.

There was a significant positive correlation between ….

There was a significant difference betweenthe two conditions ….

On average, Xs were shown to have ….

The mean score for X was ….

Interestingly, for those subjects with X,….

A positive correlation was found between Xand Y.

The results, as shown in Table 1, indicate that ….

A two-way ANOVA revealed that ….

Post hoc analysis revealed that during ….

Further analysis showed that ….

Further statistical tests revealed ….

5 Statements of negative result

There was no increase of X associated with…..

There were no significant differences between ….

No significant differences were found between ….

No increase in X was detected.

No difference greater than X was observed.

No significant reduction in X was found compared with placebo.

None of these differences were statistically significant.

Overall, X did not affect males and females differently in these measures.

The Chi-square test did not show any significant differences between ….

A clear benefit of X in the prevention of Y could not be identified in this analysis.

Only trace amounts of X were detected in ….

6 Highlighting significant, interesting or surprising results

Interestingly, the X was observed to ….

Interestingly, this correlation is related to ….

The more surprising correlation is with the….

The most surprising aspect of the data is in the ….

The most striking result to emerge from the data is that ….

The correlation between X and Y is interesting because ….

Interestingly, there were also differences in the ratios of ….

The single most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison was ….

7 Reporting a reaction

When X cells were stimulated with Y, no significant difference in the number of Z was detected.

However, stimulation of X cells with Y did not increase the ….

Following the addition of X, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the Y was recorded.

With successive increases in intensity ofthe X, the Y moved further to ….

8 Reporting results from questionnaires and interviews

The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.

Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire.

Thirty-two individuals returned the questionnaires.

By the end of the survey period, data hadbeen collected from 64 individuals, 23 of whom were ….

This section of the questionnaire required respondents to give information on ….

Respondents were asked to indicate whether….

Respondents were asked to suggest other reasons for ….

There were 53 responses to the question:‘….?’

The total number of responses for this question was ….

The overall response to this question was poor.

In response to the question: ‘….?’, a range of responses was elicited.

In response to Question 1, most of those surveyed indicated that ….

The overall response to this question was very positive.

When the participants were asked ……, the majority commented that ….

Other responses to this question included….

The majority of those who responded to this item felt that ….

70% of those who were interviewed indicated that …..

Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%)said that …..

Just over half of those who answered this question reported that ….

Over half of those surveyed reported that….

Approximately half of those surveyed did not comment on …..

Of the 62 participants who responded to this question, 30 reported an increase in ….

Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that ….

A small number of those interviewed suggested that …..

Only a small number of respondents indicated that ….

Some participants expressed the belief that…..

One individual stated that ‘….’ And another commented ‘….’

A minority of participants (17%) indicated that ….

One participant commented: ‘ ….’

Another interviewee alluded to the notion of ….

9 Observations about qualitative data

The themes of X and Y recurred throughout the dataset.

Five broad themes emerged from the analysis.

Two discrete reasons emerged from this.First …. Second .…

A number of issues were identified .…

This theme came up for example indiscussions of .…

A recurrent theme in the interviews was a sense amongst interviewees that …

These views surfaced mainly in what respects .…

There was a sense of X amongst interviewees.…

A variety of perspectives were expressed .…

A common view amongst interviewees was that.…

Issues related to X were not particularly prominent in the interview data.

In their accounts of the events surrounding….

As one interviewee said: ….

As one interviewee put it: ….

For example, one interviewee said: ….

Talking about this issue an interviewee said: ….

Another interviewee, when asked …, said: ….

The extract/comment below shows ….

Some interviewees argued that .… while others .…

Some felt that .… while others considered that .…

Two divergent and often conflicting discourses emerged .…

Whilst a minority mentioned that… all agreed that…

 10 Transition statements

If we now turn to ….

A comparison of the two results reveals ….

Turning now to the experimental evidence on….

Comparing the two results, it can be seen that ….

The next section of the survey wasconcerned with ….

In the final part of the survey, respondents were asked ….

11 Summary and transition

These results suggest that ….

Overall, these results indicate that …

Together these results provide importantinsights into ….

Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between …

In summary, these results show that ….

The results in this Chapter indicate that…. The next Chapter, therefore, moves on to discuss the ….

第二部分按功能介紹句型。功能包括如下11個類別:

使用謹慎語言(Being Cautious)

批判性思維(Being Critical)

分類與羅列(Classifying and Listing)

比較與對比(Compare and Contrast)

定義術語(Defining Terms)

描述趨勢(Describing Trends)

表述數量(Describing Quantities)

解釋原因(Explaining Causality)

舉例(Giving Examples)

示意過渡(Signalling Transition)

描述過去(Writing about the Past)

第二部

作者:巴羅佐

路易斯·屋大維·巴羅佐(Luiz Otávio Barros)在20世紀90年代末為他的碩士論文閱讀收集了數百個句型,并發現這些句型有助于他后來的學術寫作。

學術寫作句型

為了幫助其他碩士/博士生掌握這些句型,他于2016年發表了包含600個例子的句型庫著作。為了讓讀者欣賞部分句型,分12類給出了70個句型(見下面的滑動窗口)。

70 useful sentences for academic writing

第1組——辯論Argue

a. Along similar lines, [X] argues that ___.

b. There seems to be no compelling reason to argue that ___.

c. As a rebuttal to this point, it could be argued that ___.

d. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___.

e. The underlying argument in favor of / against [X] is that ___.

f. [X]’s argument in favor of / against [Y] runs as follows: ___.

第2組——斷言Claim

a. In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___.

b. [X] develops the claim that ___.

c. There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___.

d. [X]’s findings lend support to the claim that ___.

e. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___.

第3組——數據Data

a. The data gathered in the [pilot study] suggest that ___.

b. The data appears to suggest that ___.

c. The data yielded by this [study] provide strong / convincing evidence that ___.

d. A closer look at the data indicates that ___.

e. The data generated by [X] are reported in [table 1].

f. The aim of this [section] is to generalize beyond the data and ___.

第4組——爭論Debate

a. [X] has encouraged debate on ___.

b. There has been an inconclusive debate about whether ___.

c. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years].

d. (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___.

第5組——討論Discussion

a. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to ___.

b. The foregoing discussion implies that ___.

c. For the sake of discussion, I would like to argue that ___.

d. In this study, the question under discussion is ___.

e. In this paper, the discussion centers on ___.

f. [X] lies at the heart of the discussion on ___.

第6組——證據Evidence

a. The available evidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___.

b. On the basis of the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___.

c. There is overwhelming evidence for the notion that ___.

d. Further evidence supporting / against [X] may lie in the findings of [Y], who ___.

e. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___.

第7組——根據(基礎)Ground

a. I will now summarize the ground covered in this [chapter] by ___.

b. On logical grounds, there is no compelling reason to argue that ___.

c. [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and argues that ___.

d. On these grounds, we can argue that ___.

e. [X]’s views are grounded on the assumption that ___.

第8組——問題(研究主題)Issue

a. This study is an attempt to address the issue of ___.

b. In the present study, the issue under scrutiny is ___. 

c. The issue of whether ___ is clouded by the fact that ___.

d. To portray the issue in [X]’s terms, ___.

e. Given the centrality of this issue to [my claim], I will now ___.

f. This [chapter] is concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___.

第9組——文獻Literature

a. [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y].

b. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___.

c. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___.

d. The (current) literature on [X] abounds with examples of ___.

第10組——前提(假設)Premise

a. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___.

b. [X] and [Y] share an important premise: ___.

c. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___.

d. The basic premises of [X]’s theory / argument are ___.

e. The arguments against [X]’s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___.

第11組——研究Research

a.This study draws on research conducted by ___.

b. Although there has been relatively little research on / into [X], ___.

c. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support for the assertion that ___.

d. Current research appears / seems to validate the view that ___.

e. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___.

f. Further research in this area may include ___ and ___.

g. Evidence for [X] is borne out by research that shows ___.

h. There is insufficient research on / into ___ to draw any firm conclusions about / on ___.

第12組——觀點View

a. The consensus view seems to be that ___.

b. [X] propounds the view that ___.

c. Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view.

d. There have been dissenters to the view that ___.

e. The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is not as clear-cut as popular views might suggest.

f. The view that _____ is in line with [common sense].

g. I am not alone in my view that ___.

h. [X] puts forward the view that ___.

i. [X]’s views rest on the assumption that ___.

以上就是全部關于英文Essay寫作句型分享,有需要這些句型的小伙伴們趕緊收藏吧~

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