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Research Proposal范文

發布時間:2021-10-26 14:48:08 閱讀:1401 作者:致遠教育 字數:1616 字 預計閱讀時間:4分鐘
導讀:在ResearchProposal階段,學生應與CM教員討論他們的研究興趣,確定研究主題,進行初步文獻審查并制定項目建議。ResearchProposal應討論問題陳述,大約3-5頁的目標、研究方法、研究活動和時間表。本文為大家分享一篇ResearchProposal范文供...

一個研究項目或論文至少需要兩個學期才能完成。在開始研究之前,即參加第一學期的研究課程,學生必須經過Research Proposal寫作階段。在此期間,學生將制定他們的計劃書,并由其研究顧問進行審查。這意味著學生在第一學期開始前需要數月的規劃和背景研究工作,未經批準,學生不得參加研究課程。

Research Proposal范文

對于計劃在秋季學期開始研究的學生,提交Research Proposal(給您的導師)的截止日期是7月。對于計劃在春季學期開始的學生,截止日期是12月。在Research Proposal階段,學生應與CM教員討論他們的研究興趣,確定研究主題,進行初步文獻審查并制定項目建議。Research Proposal應討論問題陳述,大約3-5頁的目標、研究方法、研究活動和時間表。

本文為大家分享一篇Research Proposal范文供大家參考。

A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management

(給你的項目提供一個簡短而有意義的標題)

1.Introduction 

Every construction project is unique and has its own operating environment and sets of technical requirements. As a result, the execution of a construction project is subject to numerous constraints that limit the commencement or progression of field operations, which invariably have significant negative impact on overall project performance. By definition, constraints refer to any condition, such as temporal/spatial limitations and safety/quality concerns, which may prevent a project to achieve its goals. Successful execution and control of a construction project relies on effective identification and management of constraints through master planning and short-term look-ahead scheduling. While the master schedule provides a global view of a project and the overall execution strategy, a look-ahead schedule offers a detail account of operational constraints and a detailed plan showing work to be done within a relatively short time window. Ideally, these detailed schedules should reflect actual field conditions and provide field personnel with operation instructions free of constraints and conflicts (Hinze 2008). This look-ahead scheduling and constraint analysis procedure is also a critical component of the last-planner methodology proposed by Ballard (2000). This research project will provide an overview of state-of-art schedule constraint analysis practice during look-ahead scheduling. In addition, it will propose a conceptual framework for managing constraints.

評價:背景或介紹部分描述了研究領域的基本事實和重要性——您的研究領域是什么、研究的動機以及它對行業實踐/知識進步的重要性如何?

2. Problem Statement

The importance of developing a constraint-free and reliable work plan has long been recognized by the industry. However, numerous construction projects are still plagued by delays and cost overruns, which can frequently be traced to ineffective identification and treatment of constraints. First, when a constraint is not properly identified during scheduling, subsequent conflicts in the field are inevitable. Today’s projects are becoming more and more technically complex and logistically challenging, which exposes construction operations to even more complex constraints. Second, the traditional scheduling methods, bar charts and Critical Path Method (CPM) which are widely used as a basis for constraint analysis, greatly limit our capability in modeling and resolving constraints.

during look-ahead scheduling. These methods have long been blamed for their limitations in modeling and communicating constraints, including inability to cope with non-time-related precedence constraints and difficulty to evaluate and communicate inter-dependencies at the field operation level (e.g. Sriprasert and Dawood 2002; Chua and

Shen 2001). In summary, there is a need for a better understanding of constraints in construction and a structured approach in identifying and modeling constraints to ensure a constraint-free work plan. More specifically, the following research questions need to be addressed:

(1)What are the typical constraints found in various construction projects?

(2)How to classify these constrains for easier identification and modeling?

(3)What are the current industry practice as well as research advancements in modeling and resolving constraints? How to unify the constraint classification knowledge and various constraint modeling efforts into a framework for total constraint management?

評價:問題陳述提供了對需要解決的問題的清晰簡潔的描述——您將解決的該研究領域的具體問題是什么(例如,對某個主題缺乏理解,表現不佳……)?

3. Objectives 

The long term goal of the research is to develop a formalized constraint management system. Constraint management is defined herein as the process of identifying, classifying, modeling, and resolving constraints. The objective of the current study is to provide a comprehensive review of literatures and industry practices in relation to constraint analysis and outline a conceptual framework for constraint management. Particularly, the study has the following sub-objectives: 1. To provide a comprehensive review of sources and characteristics of constraints typically found in construction projects; 2. To develop a constraint classification method for easier constraint identification and modeling; 3. To review current industry practices and researches in regards to constraint modeling; 4. To outline a conceptual framework for total constraint management. The result of this study will be valuable to the industry practitioners as well as related software providers in developing better practice and tools for constraint management and look-ahead scheduling. 

評價:目標提供了將通過擬議研究實現的目標列表——有哪些好處/影響(例如更好的理解,提高生產力……),研究問題是否得到解答?

4. Preliminary Literature Review

A preliminary literature review shows that past studies are primarily focused on understanding and modeling a particular type of constraint, such as technological, contractual, resource, spatial, and information constraints. Limited progress has been made on classifying various constraints according to their characteristics in a comprehensive manner. In terms of modeling and resolving constraints, various approaches have been recommended. For example, many CPM-based methods are applied to deal with time-related constraints; knowledge-based systems were used to automate work plan generation; network-based optimization algorithms were developed to resolve constraints; and databases and visualization techniques, such as 3D, 4D, and Virtual Reality (VR), are used to communicate and visualize constraints. What is missing from the past studies is a comprehensive and structured approach in managing constraints in construction projects.

評價:初步文獻綜述:提供先前相關文獻的總結對研究問題及其優勢和劣勢的研究以及您研究的理由——其他人知道/做過什么?而且,為什么你的研究仍然是必要的?

5. Methodology 

The primary research method for this study is literature review and conceptual modeling. Constraint identification and classification through a structured approach is the very first step toward a “zero-constraint” environment. This study will first review various types of constraints in construction and their characteristics. Based on this understanding, a classification method will be developed to categorize constraint factors for the purpose of constraint identification and modeling. In the second stage of this study, existing constraint modeling methods will be identified based on a comprehensive review of current industry practices and academic researches. Finally, once the constraint classification and modeling techniques are identified, a conceptual framework for total constraint management will be outlined. This study will be conducted between September 2010 and May 2011.

評價:研究方法定義了研究方法和邏輯步驟——做什么以及如何解決問題并實現建議目標?將使用哪些研究方法(例如調查、建模、案例研究……?如有必要,附上項目進度表)

References 

Ballard, G. (2000). “Last planner system of production control.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Chua, D. and Shen, L. J. (2001). “Constraint modeling and buffer management with integrated production scheduler.” Proceedings of International Conferences on Lean Construction 2001, Singapore. Hinze, J. W. (2008). Construction planning and scheduling, 3rd ed. Pearson, NJ. Sriprasert, E. and Dawood, N (2002). “Requirements identification for 4D constraint-based construction planning and control system.” Proceedings of CIB W78 conference – distributing knowledge in building, Aarhus, Danmark.

評價:所有非原創的事實材料必須附有對其來源的引用。請使用 ASCE 關于參考和引用風格的指南。

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