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Essay Paragraph寫作實例解析

發布時間:2022-01-11 16:36:31 閱讀:496 作者:博遠教育 字數:2200 字 預計閱讀時間:7分鐘
導讀:除非有特殊要求,通常情況下,Essay應該在開頭有一個介紹性段落,在結尾有一個結論段落,它們處于Essay的不同位置,功能不同,因此各有自己獨特的結構。Essay的主體也將包含幾個段落,在這部分內容中,你將討論、分析和評估與論文主題相關的內容,并輔以相關支持性的例子和證據。...

除非有特殊要求,通常情況下,Essay開頭有一個介紹性段落,在結尾有一個結論段落,它們處于Essay的不同位置,功能不同,因此各有自己獨特的結構。

Essay Paragraph寫作實例解析

Essay的主體也將包含幾個段落,在這部分內容中,你將討論、分析和評估與論文主題相關的內容,并輔以相關支持性的例子和證據。段落數量取決于Essay長度和主體討論的不同觀點的數量。

1.Paragraph內容結構

首先,我們要明白,什么是段落?一個抓人眼球的段落應該包含哪些內容?

一個段落應包含一個主要話題或想法。由以下部分組成:

  一個主題句

  相關支持性的句子

  一個總結性的句子

2.Paragraph實例分析

Essay question: Does social media enhance cross-cultural connection?

[Topic Sentence]Research indicates that while digital communication has enhanced the capacity of people to connect across cultures, there are limitations regarding how this communication translates to genuine connection. [Supporting sentences] Many scholars suggest that social media is a way for people to form relationships in the digital space even though they may be separated geographically. Smith (2010. p. 75) suggests that technology has ::greatly enhanced" the capacity of people to connect through digital platforms such as Facebook. Twitter and Instagram. Rogers etal. (2019) propose that these kinds of technology platforms not only benefit users in terms of social connectivity, but also significantly impact the distribution of knowledge between people and cultures. [1] Similarly, in a study of over 1500 participants in Australia. China. India and Germany, Cosgrove (2018) found that people who regularly used social media were more likely to engage in activities from other cultures. However, other scholars suggest there are significant limitations to the extent to which social media enhances cross- cultural connection. [2] While Harrison (2017. p. 9) agrees that technology has increased the capacity for people to communicate across cultures. he raises concerns that such forms of communication fail to "foster in-depth relationships" between people and communities from different cultures. In a similar way, James (2020) suggests that developments in technology must be accompanied by rigorous and meaningful debate about the possibilities and limitations of such communication in terms of cultural connection. Going further. Markson (2018. p. 18) warns that digital communication platforms, while seeming to enhance connection. actually "erode the fundamental principles of cross-cultural engagement' by reducing important and complex aspects of culture to instant images …for immediate gratification rather than deep understanding". [Concluding sentence] While social media platforms offer the chance for many people from different cultures to connect more research needs to be done regarding the quality of such conn ection.

Topic sentence

Research indicates that while digital communication has enhanced the capacity of people to connect across cultures, there are limitations regarding how this communication translates to genuine connection. 

研究表明,雖然數字通信增強了人們跨文化溝通的能力,但在如何轉化這種數字通訊為真正的聯系上存在一定局限。

主題句即解釋段落主旨。

例子中的主旨句肯定了數字通訊的積極作用,但也指出其發展還不完全成熟,存在一定缺陷。

表明作者對數字通訊技術持中立態度,那么在隨后的支持性句子展開論證解釋的時候就需要采用正反兩方面的研究。

Supporting sentences

相關支持性句子即介紹其他文章、作者的觀點和研究,以便進一步佐證段落主旨。

Smith (2010, p. 75) suggests that technology has “greatly enhanced” the capacity of people to connect through digital platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Rogers et al. (2019) propose that these kinds of technology platforms not only benefit users in terms of social connectivity, but also significantly impact the distribution of knowledge between people and cultures.

Smith(2010,75頁)提出,技術已經 "大大增強 "了人們通過Facebook、Twitter和Instagram等數字平臺進行溝通聯系的能力。羅杰斯等人(2019)提出,這類技術平臺不僅使用戶在社會連接方面受益,而且還大大影響了人與文化之間的知識分配。

支持句一(積極態度)+轉折

Similarly, in a study of over 1,500 participants in Australia, China, India and Germany, Cosgrove (2018) found that people who regularly used social media were more likely to engage in activities from other cultures. However, other scholars suggest there are significant limitations to the extent to which social media enhances cross-cultural connection.

同樣,在對澳大利亞、中國、印度和德國的1500多名參與者的研究中,Cosgrove(2018)發現,經常使用社交媒體的人更有可能參與其他文化的活動。然而,其他學者認為,社交媒體增強跨文化聯系的程度存在很大的局限性。

在例子中,作者將那些支持社交媒體作為跨文化交流形式的學者歸為一類。分別闡述了他們的觀點進行佐證。隨后however引出持否定態度學者的研究。

支持句二(消極態度)

While Harrison (2017, p. 9) agrees that technology has increased the capacity for people to communicate across cultures, he raises concerns that such forms of communication fail to “foster in-depth relationships” between people and communities from different cultures. In a similar way, James (2020) suggests that developments in technology must be accompanied by rigorous and meaningful debate about the possibilities and limitations of such communication in terms of cultural connection. Going further, Markson (2018, p. 18) warns that digital communication platforms, while seeming to enhance connection, actually “erode the fundamental principles of cross-cultural engagement” by reducing important and complex aspects of culture to “instant images … for immediate gratification rather than deep understanding". 

雖然Harrison(2017,9頁)同意技術提高了人們跨文化交流的能力,但他擔心的是這種交流形式不能 "促進不同文化的人和社區之間的深入關系"。同樣,James(2020)提到,技術的發展必須伴隨關于這種交流在文化聯系方面的任何可能性和局限性的嚴謹且有意義的討論。Markson(2018,第18頁)也說到,數字通信平臺雖然看起來加強了聯系,但實際上 "侵蝕了跨文化接觸的基本原則",因為它將文化的重要和復雜方面減少到 "即時圖像......為了即可滿足而不是深入理解"。

該段的后半部分列舉了持反對觀點的學者觀點。諸如 "similarly "和 "however "這樣的連接短語顯示了觀點之間的邏輯關系。在寫作時,巧妙運用轉折詞能幫助讀者更好理解文章內容,理清邏輯關系。

Concluding sentence

While social media platforms offer the chance for many people from different cultures to connect, more research needs to be done regarding the quality of such connection.

雖然社交媒體平臺為來自不同文化的人提供了交流的機會,但對于這種聯系的質量還需要做更多的研究。

在進行正反兩方面論述后,結論句再次總結該段的主要觀點,并為后文或將來進一步探討留下空間。

如何寫好段落Paragraph

3.如何寫好段落Paragraph

在寫作過程中,需要帶著以下問題:

是否有明確的重點

一個段落應該有單一、明確的重點內容,并在第一句主題句中得到體現,同時,段落的重點也是對Essay問題的直接回應。

是否有一個好的主題句

主題句通常是第一句,直接勾勒出該段的所有重點內容。

在上面的例子中,主題句是通過重復問題中的關鍵詞(或這些詞的同義詞)直接回應Essay問題的,如 "digital communication"、"across cultures "和 "connections"。

一旦有清晰的主題句,就可以在寫段落時以此為中心進行寫作。通過檢查所有的支持性論證是否與主題句有直接關系,以確保沒有跑題。

是否進行了有效補充論證

所有支持性補充論證句構成了段落的主體部分。由其他學者的觀點、研究構成,通過自己的邏輯建構,為自己Essay主旨服務。

在上述例子中,作者用自己的的口吻寫到:"Many scholars suggest that social media is a way for many different people to form relationships in the digital space even though they may be separated geographically." 這句話的目的是為了介紹后面的相關觀點。

觀點論證是否有邏輯

邏輯嚴密的觀點論證是寫好一個段落的基礎。

在上面的例子中,有兩條邏輯主線,第一條以 “Many scholars suggest …”,這句話開始,探討了不同學者認為社交媒體能增強跨文化聯系。隨后 “However, other scholars suggest…”一句開始,作者列舉了幾位學者持有社交媒體作為促進跨文化交流工具具有一定局限性的觀點,也就是第二條邏輯主線。

不過當文章內容太長,字數較多的時候,可以分段討論,即用一整段深入討論陳述積極意義,再用一整段討論消極意義。

無論如何建構段落,重點是要有明確主題和清晰的邏輯順序。

是否有總結句

結論句和主題句一樣,應該指出本段所討論的重點內容的范圍。

在上述例子中,結論句不僅重申了主題句的思想,還包含了額外信息:在這個領域需要進行更多的研究。以提示接下來的文章內容。

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