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Research Essay格式指南與范文模板

發布時間:2022-02-10 14:36:54 閱讀:617 作者:博遠教育 字數:2018 字 預計閱讀時間:5分鐘
導讀:ResearchEssay是留學生學業上的必經之路,很多人可能會對于這樣學術性比較強的文章感到無從著手。其實,寫這類文章都是有技巧的,接下來博遠教育會一步一步地分析如何寫好一篇ResearchEssay。

Research Essay是留學生學業上的必經之路,很多人可能會對于這樣學術性比較強的文章感到無從著手。其實,寫這類文章都是有技巧的,接下來博遠教育會一步一步地分析如何寫好一篇research essay并為大家提供research essay范文模板。

Research Essay寫作步驟

1.Research Essay寫作步驟

第一步其實很簡單但很重要。你要真正理解作業的內容以及教授對于這篇論文的要求,了解題目的真正意思才有助于你少走彎路,要確保是不跑題的,才能得到理想的分數。仔細閱讀教授給你的材料,總結材料中的主要內容,如果你不是很確定,一定要問清楚。了解教授的分數評定標準也很重要。一定要確保自己在正確的道路上開始著手。

第二步,是選題,開始思考你所要寫的內容。選擇自己感興趣的,愿意花時間去了解的主題。沒有完美的主題,或者說,一定能拿高分的主題。根據自己情況,選擇一些有爭議性話題的主題,也可能會有很好的效果,比如gun control, abortion 或者 privacy rights等等,一些時新的,爭議性話題也可以激發出許多不同的聲音。當你確定主題主題符合作業要求之后,就要花些時間去找資料,這時候你不一定要很精通這個話題的所有知識點,但也要有所了解。把搜集資料當成一種學習新知識的挑戰,其實論文的好壞某種程度上也是看你對論文的投入程度。

第三步,開始搜集資料,做研究。研究方式大家都會有所不同,沒有特定的模式。主要就是大量地瀏覽,找到可靠可用的論文資源,盡可能地收集有用的信息。在閱讀的時候,要學會找到自己最快速有效的方法尋找關鍵詞和關鍵片段。一般的網絡信息是肯定不能作為可靠數據采納的,比如維基百科。還是要科學的文獻論文之類,才有說服力??梢詮木S基百科入手,深入探究更科學的數據,把相關主題的觀點都記筆記,再做整理篩選。如果有可能的話,和權威教授多多交流。

第四步,整理你的資料有助于清晰思路,把你所想要用到的書籍名稱,論文等列成書單,然后在關鍵想引用的地方做上標記,整理的過程也是構思的過程。

第五步,經過以上的步驟基本上你對于所寫的內容已經有所把握了??梢越M織一下思緒,提出一個主旨句。這個觀點簡明扼要地讓讀者了解這篇文章在說什么,也幫助你把握中心思想。比如,看下圖短句。

當然這只是文章的起點。如果光是這樣的觀點是沒有說服力的,你后續還要更具體的修正觀點。比如,看下圖。不用害怕提出的觀點是有爭議的,有爭議也是檢驗你觀點是否合理的強勢。

當你確定一個可辯論的、清晰的主旨之后,再去和老師溝通一下,看一下這個論點是否足夠的強有力,對于你的論文成績會有幫助。

第六步,就是寫大綱。這部分是樹立一個論文結構體系,讓你在寫作的過程中更加順暢,不會因為信息的繁多產生混亂的語言和思維。下個部分里我們會詳細講解下論文的結構。

第七步在大綱確認之后,就可以開始寫作了。

最后一步可以合并為一個概念,那就是修正。修正你需要補充或者刪減的內容,修正你的語法,避免閱讀上的不通暢。重新以客觀的角度閱讀你自己的文章,提出建議并進行修改,會更有質量的保證。

2.Research Essay結構指南

論文一開始肯定是title,可以用簡短有趣吸引人的標題增加可讀性,包括了你的信息,名字,日期等等。接下來是abstract概要,對文章的簡短總結概要。概要之后就是introduction介紹,這里包含了主題內容的背景信息。再接下來是材料和方法materials/methods,解釋任何與你研究有關系的,你所采用的材料和方法,之后我們會貼出范文給大家參考。解釋完之后,就是result結論。討論你的發現,但不要做絕對的結論。然后進行discussion,討論你這個結論的意義。在最后完結之前,還有一個部分叫做limitations,可以適當的提出文案的局限性,提供一些后續需要研究的方向。最后就是acknowledgments以及reference,一些需要補充的注釋和參考文案的目錄。

3.Research Essay范文模板

我們在這里給大家展示一篇Research Essay短范例,僅做參考。

—START OF EXAMPLE —

[Page 1 ? text aligned in the center and middle of the page)

"Behavioral Study of Obedience"

by [author], (University]

1961

[Page 2 - text starts at the top, left]

Abstract

There are few facts about the role of obedience when committing acts against one's personal conscience (1961). Most theories suggest that only very disturbed people are capable of administering pain to an ordinary citizen if they are ordered to do so. Our experiment tested people's obedienee to authority. The results showed that most obey all orders given by the authority-figure, despite their unwillingness. The conclusion is that, contrary to common belief, personal ethics mean little when pitted against authority.

[Page 3-X - text starts in the top, left corner, no extra spacing to align text]

Introduction

Current theories focus on personal characteristics to explain wrong-doing and how someone can intentionally harm others. In a survey, professionals such as doctors, psychologist and laymen predicted that a small proportion of a population (1-3%) would harm others if ordered to do so.

In the recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, he claims to only have been following orders". The author wanted to test this claim. Can people harm others because they are merely obeying orders? Can people be ordered to act against their moral convictions?

The experiment will test whether a person can keep administer!ng painful electric shocks to another person just because they are ordered to do so. The expectation is that very few will keep giving participants will disobey the order.

Methods

Participants

There were 30 male participants. They were recruited by advertisement in a newspaper and were paid $4.50. Instruments

A "shock generator" was used to trick the participants into thinking that they were giving an electric shock to another person in another room. The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way upto 450 volts. The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were.

Procedures

The participant met another "participant" in the waiting room before the experiment The other "participant" was an actor. Each participant got the role as a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the actor ("learner0) every time an incorrect answer to a question was produced. The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner.

The learner would pretend to be shocked. As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition. Once the 300-volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock.

When asking the experimenter if they should stop, they were instructed to continue.

Results

Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks. 14 persons did not obey the experimenter and stopped before reaching the highest levels. All 40 participants continued to give shocks up to 300 volts.

Discussion/Conclusion

Most of the participants became very agitated, stressed and angry at the experimenter. Many continued to follow orders throughout even though they were clearly uncomfortable. The study shows that people are able to harm others intentionally if ordered to do so. It provides evidence that this dynamic is far more important than previously believed, and that personal ethics are less predictive of such behavior.

[New Page]

References

[Read more about references here]

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