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Essay寫作主體結構推薦:PEEL寫作邏輯法

發布時間:2022-05-18 13:37:52 閱讀:207 作者:博遠教育 字數:1830 字 預計閱讀時間:4分鐘
導讀:一般一篇Essay包含3個部分,依次為開頭段Introduction,主體段Mainbody,以及結論conclusion。其中主體段一般為2-3段。全文整體結構,就類似一個漢堡包。今天我們主要討論,主體段應該如何構思?關于主題段如何展開,雅思寫作有一個常用的結構方法:PE...

一般一篇Essay包含3個部分,依次為開頭段Introduction, 主體段Main body, 以及結論conclusion。其中主體段一般為2-3段。全文整體結構,就類似一個漢堡包。

Essay寫作

今天我們主要討論,主體段應該如何構思?關于主題段如何展開,雅思寫作有一個常用的結構方法:PEEL寫作邏輯法。

PEEL寫作邏輯法由P、E、E、L四個單詞的首字母組成。PEEL這個詞,本意為"剝開",借助PEEL寫作法,我們能剝開學術寫作的外殼,理解學術寫作的結構框架。

PEEL寫作邏輯解結構圖

Point

是指觀點 (Point),是一個段落的主旨句。

Your first sentence must state your point. It introduces the topic you're about to discuss and tells the reader what the paragraph is going to be about. This is sometimes called a topic sentence.

Evidence/Examples

第一個 E 是指舉例 (Example) 或者證據 (Evidence)– 用例子來支撐您的觀點

Support your point with evidence and examples. In the next one or two sentences, give evidence to expand upon and support the point you made. Evidence can include facts, statistics, research findings, quotes from a credible authority or a primary text.

Explain

第二個 E 是指解釋 (Explain)– 為什么這個證據能夠支持您的觀點

This is where you show your understanding by explaining in more detail how and why your evidence supports your point. Your explanation should interpret the evidence for the reader.

Link

L 是指銜接 (Link)– 連接到你的主論點,總結本段的主要觀點,或者過渡到下一個中心思想或段落

The final part of the PEEL sentence is the statement that links it to your broader argument or a closing statement that summarizes the argument you've just made, or link your writing to the next paragraph.

PEEL寫作法是一個實用且高效的結構寫作方法。一方面,該方法能幫助你寫出條理清晰、邏輯嚴密的文章。另一方面,這樣的結構也讓讀者更容易理解你的觀點,跟上你的思路。這一點很重要,因為考官在評分時,每張試卷也就看幾眼,讓他能夠快速抓住你的主要觀點,跟上你的思路,才能給你更高的分數。

雖然這個方法聽起來很簡單,但實際操作后,會發現并不容易掌握。

關于PEEL結構的幾個常見問題

1. 例子或證據從哪來?該如何舉例子?

例子主要來源于我們做過的case study。所以平時案例積累非常重要。我們之前整理過很多案例,大家可以翻看我以前的文章。

在舉例子方面,很多學生常犯的錯誤,就是舉例過于冗長且不切題。如果例子不能有效的支持你的觀點,就是無效例證,是沒有分數的。有學生抱怨說,自己舉了例子,但為何15分的Essay總是超不過7分,這就是原因。

2. PEEL結構中Example和Evidence的順序是固定的嗎?

有些人認為這兩個E的位置應該是固定的,但其實沒有必要這么死板。誰先誰后沒關系,邏輯上流暢就可以。大家可以對比一下這兩個例文:

Example 1:

Why does volcanic activity occur in the Pacific Ring of Fire?

(Point) Volcanic activity occurs around the Pacific Ring of Fire because many destructive plate boundaries are located here.

(Evidence) One example is the destructive boundary between the continental South American plate and the oceanic Pacific plate which has formed the Andes Mountains

(Explain) The denser oceanic plate is subducted underneath the continental plate and melts as it falls into the hot mantle. Magma then rises up through the continental plate and is erupted through volcanoes at the surface.

(Link) The destructive boundaries all around the Pacific Ring of Fire are the reason for high volcanic activity.

Example 2:

(Point) "Whilst there are numerous reasons to study history, arguably the most pertinent is that history helps us to understand people and societies.

(Explain) This is because history provides us with a vast repository of knowledge about how people and societies behave.

(Example) For example, humanity can project economic forecast through the study of past trends.

(Explain) However imperfectly, history serves as a laboratory and the data it provides allows people to understand how humans and societies evolve.

(Link) This shows that people study history to understand how and why they manage their life the way they do."

仔細觀察第二個例文,你會發現它不是簡單的PEEL結構。很明顯是一個加長版的PEEL,P和L之間可以無限嵌套E。第一個E是explain, 是對point做了解釋。后面接了一個Evidence + Explain。在很多稍微復雜點的段落中,這樣的結構很常見。

有時候,一個結果可能有很多個原因。這也就意味著,一個point后面需要分類討論好幾個解釋。整段的結構就會比較復雜,可能會構成類似這樣的結構:

Point

Explain 1, Evidence 1

Explain 2, Evidence 2

Link.

舉個例子

(Point) Drainage basin size cansignificantly influence the flood risk in a drainage basin. 

(Explain 1) On one hand, if a basin is small, rainfall will reach and fill the river quicker, which results in a smaller lag time.  

(Evidence 1) For example, the Boscastle (UK) floods of 2004 drained an area of less than 15 km2. This meant that the peak of the floods occurred soon after the peak of the storm. In contrast, the Mississippi River is over 3700 km long, it takes much longer for the lower part of the river to respond to an even that might occur in the upper part of the river. 

(Explain 2) On the other hand, large basin with more tributaries can catch more water, resulting in high peak discharge. Therefore, large basin is more likely to have severe floods than small basin. 

(Evidence 2) For example, Yangtze River is the longest riverin Asia (6300 km). Its drainage basin comprises one-fifth of the land area of China and is home to nearly 500 million of the country's population. Yangtze River has flooded many times in history and claimed thousands of people. In contrast, Qinhuai River, as a tributary of Yangtze River, has much small catchment area, it flows across Nanjing city. Although the water level can rise quickly in rain season, floods never happen in this river in recent decades. 

(Link) Altogether, small basin can respond more quickly to rainfall while large basin tends to have high peak discharge. 

3. 舉例子或者做解釋有哪些常用句型?

有一些常用的解釋句的句型可以采用:

Sentence starters you might use to add analysis statements include:

• This evidence shows that . . .

• Therefore . . .

• These examples demonstrate . . .

• Because …., then.

• Clearly, this suggests that . . .

• This evidence is an example of . . .

• This reveals that . . .

•If this happened, then.....

•This is significant because.....

舉例的常用句式:

For example,

For instance,

4. 要用好這個方法,還有哪些需要注意?

寫作前需要構思文章的結構,要先打草稿,規劃文章的結構。有的學生經常會漏掉舉例或Link,根本原因就是沒打草稿。

有時間一定要檢查。檢查是否存在語法和拼寫錯誤,檢查PEEL的4個部分是否齊全。

5. 這個方法有什么缺點呢?

缺點也是有的。這個方法最常用于雅思寫作。雅思寫作和A-level考試對學生的能力要求存在差異。

A-level Geography的評價目標有4個,分別為AO1: knowledge, AO2: understanding and application, AO3: Skills, AO4: Evaluation. As考試注重對前3個能力的考察,AO4占比僅為12%。但A2考試更注重對學生批判性思維的考察,AO4占比提高到40%。

以上就是關于PEEL寫作邏輯法介紹,覺得有用的同學們可以根據自己的情況使用。如果在國外留學的同學們遇到不會寫Essay或者不想寫的話,歡迎大家選擇博遠教育為您提供Essay代寫服務,我們旗下超過500位碩博精英寫手熟知各類Essay寫作格式確保為大家寫出高質量原創Essay,價格有誠意、分數有保障、服務有質量,歡迎咨詢。

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