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英文Summary怎么寫-Summary范文分享

發布時間:2020-04-17 15:23:03 閱讀:10373 作者:致遠教育 字數:2470 字 預計閱讀時間:8分鐘
導讀:Summary是一種對原始文獻(或文章)的基本內容進行濃縮的語義連貫的短文,它以迅速掌握原文內容梗概為目的,不加主觀評論和解釋,但必須簡明、確切地表述原文的重要內容。但是很多留學生不知道怎么寫summary以及怎么寫好summary,本文致遠教育小編為大家奉上寫作方法。

Summary是一種對原始文獻(或文章)的基本內容進行濃縮的語義連貫的短文,它以迅速掌握原文內容梗概為目的,不加主觀評論和解釋,但必須簡明、確切地表述原文的重要內容。但是很多留學生不知道summary怎么寫以及怎么寫好summary,本文致遠教育小編為大家奉上寫作方法。

Summary怎么寫

Summary寫作(summary writing)是一種控制性的作文形式,它能使學生通過閱讀原文,吸收原文的文章結構與語言方面的長處,寫出內容一致、結構近似、語言簡潔的短文.另外,對培養學生善于抓住文章重點的能力也有很大幫助,有利于他們在實際寫作中避免面面俱到,事無巨細,一一羅列的不良傾向.這種寫作既要準確理解原文,又要能綜合概括;既能培養欣賞能力,又能訓練書面表達能力.

下面談談英文summary怎么寫.

1)細讀原文.首先要仔細閱讀全篇作品,然后對作品進行整體分析,掌握原文總的意思和結構,明確全文的主題(the maintheme)和各段的段落大意(the main idea).

2)弄清要求.搞清楚是寫全文概要,還是寫某一部分的概要,或者就某些問題寫出要點.3)列出原文要點.分析原文的內容和結構,將內容分項扼要表述并注意在結構上的順序.在此基礎上選出與文章主題密切相關的部分.

4)草擬寫作提綱并寫出初稿.將挑選出的要點作為框架草擬詳細的提綱,以所列的提綱為依據寫出summary的初稿.在寫作時要特別注意下面幾點:

a.summary應包括原文中的主要事實(main facts);略去不必要的細節(unnecessary details).

b.安排好篇幅的比例.summary應同原文保持協調,即用較多的文字寫重要內容,用較少的文字寫次要內容.

c.注意段落的連貫和句子的銜接.要用適當的轉折詞語貫通全文,切忌只簡單地寫出一些互不相干的句子.

d.盡可能用自己的話來寫,但不排斥用原文的某些詞句.

e.計算詞數,看是否符合規定的詞數要求. 

如何寫一篇文章的summary?

如何寫一篇文章的summary?

Summary是對一篇文章的主題思想的簡單陳述.它用最簡潔的語言概括了原文的主題.寫summary主要包括三個步驟:(1)閱讀;

(2)寫作;

(3)修改成文;

第一步:閱讀

A.認真閱讀給定的原文材料.如果一遍不能理解,就多讀兩遍.閱讀次數越多,你對原文的理解就越深刻. 

B.給summary起一個標題.用那些能概括文章主題思想的單詞、短語或短句子作為標題.也可以采用文中的主題句作為標題.主題句往往出現在文章的開頭或結尾.一個好標題有助于確定文章的中心思想. 

C.現在,就該決定原文中哪些部分重要,哪些部分次重要了.對重要部分的主要觀點進行概括. 

D.簡要地記下主要觀點——主題、標題、細節等你認為對概括summary重要的東西. 

第二步:動手寫作 

A. summary應該只有原文的三分之一或四分之一長.因此首先數一下原文的字數,然后除以三,得到一個數字.summary的字數可以少于這個數字,但是千萬不能超過這個數字. 

B. summary應全部用自己的話完成.不要引用原文的句子. 

C. 應該遵循原文的邏輯順序.這樣你就不必重新組織觀點、事實. 

D. summary必須全面、清晰地表明原文所載的信息,以便你的讀者不需翻閱原文就可以完全掌握材料的原意. 

E. 寫summary時可以采用下列幾種小技巧: 

1) 刪除細節.只保留主要觀點. 

2) 選擇一至兩個例子.原文中可能包括5個或更多的例子,你只需從中篩選一至二個例子. 

3) 把長段的描述變成短小、簡單的句子.如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十個句子,那么你只要把它們變成一兩句即可. 

4) 避免重復.在原文中,為了強調某個主題,可能會重復論證說明.但是這在summary中是不能使用的.應該刪除那些突出強調的重述句. 

5) 壓縮長的句子.如下列兩例: 

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.” 

可以概括為:”He was very brave in battle.” 

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.” 

可以概括為:“He was in financial difficulties.” 

6) 你還可以使用詞組代替整句或者從句.請看下面的例子: 

“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.” 

可以概括為:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.” 

7) 使用概括性的名詞代替具體的詞,比如: 

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.” 

可以概括為:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.” 

8) 使用最短的連接詞.比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等較長的連接詞.通常,使用分號就能夠達成使用連接詞的效果. 

9) 文章中的第一人稱說的話通常在summary中轉換成第三人稱,從而把大段的對白簡化,比如: 

Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful… like eating cardboard or sand… just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.” 

可以用第三人稱概括為: 

Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

第三步:修改成文 

草稿擬好以后,對它進行修改.首先,與原文比較看是否把所有重要的觀點都概括了,summary中的觀點是否與原文中的完全一致.其次,如果summary中出現了不必要的詞匯、短語或長句子,刪除它們.第三,檢查拼寫、語法和標點符號的錯誤.最后,保持語言簡單明了. 

經過上述步驟和方法,一篇summary就可以完成了,下面是一篇summary范文,供大家參考:

Summary范文分享

Winterer, Caroline. The Mirror of Antiquity: American Women and the Classical Tradition, 1750-1900. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.

In this follow-up to her earlier study, Winterer focuses on the place of classicism in the lives of American women.  The unity or contiguity of this narrative depends, I think, on familiarity with the earlier work.  Without having read Winterer’s first book, I might have found this volume arbitrary and insular.

Winterer begins by describing the place of classicism in the lives of well-educated (for their time) upper-class women of the pre-Revolutionary era.  Classical motifs and a smattering of classical knowledge — not of original languages but of history and literature — were a way to ornament one’s conversation or one’s home, a way to participate at a superficial level in a social discourse with men.

During the Revolutionary era, women appealed to the ideal of the Roman matron to characterize themselves as guardians of republican virtue who played a key role in shaping the character of America’s youth — specifically, America’s sons — and thus the future of the country.

In her chapter on the early Republic, Winterer traces the way women appropriated or understood three key motifs or myths:  the women of Sparta, Roman charity/the Grecian daughter, and the contrast between Minerva and Venus.  I had never heard of Roman charity; now I am scarred for life.  However, the myth, and its ready adoption by women (or by men talking about women?) says a lot about what women were expected to do and to be:  completely self-abnegating in the service of patriarchy.

Winterer’s chapter on Grecian luxury discusses the importation of “classical,” and specifically Grecian/”oriental” motifs into fashion and decorating.  Grecian dresses (white, flowing fabric, no corset, empire waist) were meant to make women look columnar; klismos chairs and sofas were meant to accentuate women’s life of leisure and repose.  The whole section on the sofa as a symbol of status and decadence is amazing, simply for historicizing what is surely by now a ubiquitous and completely unremarkable object.

At the same time that classical knowledge was being criticized as being irrelevant and elite, classicism was going mainstream for women (and the democracy in general) with the rise of museums and cultural venues that put access to the classical past within the reach of more people.  In “female academies,” women’s seminaries, and colleges, more and more women began to learn classical languages.  Winterer does not say if this increased access of women to the classics “caused” their decline in prestige or was a consequence of it.*  But she does point out repeatedly throughout the book the irony that women gained full participation in the tradition of classical learning when classical learning was no longer central to American public and political life. In her chapter on the Greek slave, Winterer discusses how classicism informed polemics about the place of women in society, and the nobility (or lack thereof) of female slaves seeking freedom.  In the last chapter, on Antigone, Winterer talks about how the play offered a vehicle to portray female heroism, but a heroism that was linked to gender essentialism in the 19th century.

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