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Paraphrase技巧思路與具體方法

發布時間:2020-07-20 13:34:47 閱讀:11879 作者:致遠教育 字數:2048 字 預計閱讀時間:6分鐘
導讀:“Paraphrase”,即“改述”,是指用你自己的詞匯提取并復述另一個源文件的詞匯。通過一些Paraphrase技巧,在保留原文的意思同時,可以避免照搬原文措辭的現象,從而降低論文重復率。我們到底該如何Paraphrase技巧呢?如何避免頻繁使用關鍵詞 (key...

“Paraphrase”,即“改述”,是指用你自己的詞匯提取并復述另一個源文件的詞匯。通過一些Paraphrase技巧,在保留原文的意思同時,可以避免照搬原文措辭的現象,從而降低論文重復率。我們到底該如何Paraphrase技巧呢?如何避免頻繁使用關鍵詞 (key words)呢?本文致遠教育小編就為大家分享Paraphrase技巧思路與具體方法。

Paraphrase

Paraphrase總體思路

Paraphrase的過程一般可以分為以下7個步驟:

1. 把文章仔細讀幾遍;

2. 找出它的要點;

3. 然后把原文章放在一邊;

4. 試著在不看原文的情況下用你自己的話重新寫出要點。換句話說,就是給自己解釋一下你讀的這篇文章。

5. 寫完后,把改述的草稿放在一邊,繼續看其他的東西,或者做其他的事情。把你的注意力轉移到其他事情上就行,這會使你和原文之間產生距離。也可以說,讓你頭腦清醒一下,刪除對原文的記憶。當你返回過來,你會有一個全新的視角。你對原文的準確記憶會在某種程度上消失,你會更容易專注于自己的措辭和句子結構。

6. 此時,還是不看原文,把你paraphrase的草稿潤色一下。在這個過程中,你會發現你在用自己的語言表達原文的意思。

7. 編輯過后,將你改述的草稿與原文進行比較??纯词欠衲愀氖龅牟莞迥軠蚀_傳達原文的意思。還有它們的不同之處是否足以避免抄襲的嫌疑。

這些步驟會給你帶來很大的幫助,讓你提高論文的原創度,順利通過turnitin查重。下面我們來討論改述的具體方法。

Paraphrase具體方法

1. 把主動句變為被動句,反之把被動句變為主動句

這樣的意思就是說把原本的主語和賓語的順敘顛倒一下,并且把動詞變為被動形式。但是也要注意不要改變原句的意思哦!

2. 改變詞性

英語中的詞匯,大多數都是多個詞性共存的,因為他們的詞根都是一樣的。有時我們可以把他們互用。所以當我們想要使用一個名詞的意思的時候,我們可以換做它的動詞來進行表述。

Original:

Current political and economic incentives favor industry and other interest groups at the expense of health: consider the subsidies paid for corn-based agriculture and mass-produced processed foods, the tobacco revenue generated in countries with a government-owned tobacco industry, industrial growth in the face of environmental pollution, and the spread of the sedentary automobile-and-television culture.

(Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010, September 23). Global noncomunicable diseases – where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable Paraphrase: Changed Voice and Changed Parts of Speech

Researchers point out that in attempting to implement economic growth, industry is often favored over health: government may subsidize certain forms of agriculture and food production, contribute to tobacco consumption in nations where it owns the industry and otherwise promote growth of industries that pollute. (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011).

3. 把從句改為短語,反之把短語改為從句

在英語中我們可以把一個復雜的復合長句切割成多個小句子一樣,我們也可以把那些主句后面的從句變為某一短語,或者把短語表達的意思改寫成一句從句。

Original:

The prevalence and impact of non-communicable diseases continue to grow. Chronic diseases account for 60% of all deaths worldwide, and 80% of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income countries, where the toll is disproportionate during the prime productive years of youth and middle age.

(Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., , Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010, September 23). Global noncomunicable diseases – where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable paraphrase: Changed Clause to Phrase

The increasing spread of non-communicable diseases can be seen in figures that show these diseases are responsible for 60% of all deaths on the planet, and that in countries where the population is primarily of low or middle income, the impact is greatest, often focusing on those who are young or middle-aged (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011).

4. 改變句子的結構

主要是指把句子的表達順序顛倒一下。比如把倒敘的句子改為順敘的句子,但是在改變之后,需要注意一下上下句的連接,不要太生硬。如果有必要用些承上啟下的詞句來適應過度。

5. 把所有非通用的單詞使用同義詞

你要記住,無論是中文的文章還是英文的文章,它們都很忌諱重復使用某一個詞或者句子來表述同一個意思。當我們想改述一篇文章時,我們更應該注意這一點,更要避免出現和原文雷同的多個詞組。

Original:

Like drought, excess rainfall and flooding can also contribute to epidemics of waterborne infectious diseases, in this case due to poor sanitation resulting from runoff from overwhelmed sewage lines or the contamination of water by livestock.

(Source: Shuman, E., M.D. (2010, March 25). Global climate change and infectious diseases. New England Journal of Medicine; 362, 12, 1061-1063. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable paraphrase: Used synonyms

An overabundance of rainfall can also be a factor in spreading infectious diseases carried by water, usually as a result of overflowing sewers and pollution from farm animals (Shuman, 2010).

Acceptable paraphrase: Changed sentence structure

When there is an overabundance of rainfall, two situations can occur: sewers can overflow and water can become polluted by the presence of livestock, both of which can lead to outbreaks of waterborne diseases (Shuman, 2010).

Paraphrase方法

6. 以上五種方法的綜合使用

值得一提的是,paraphrase的目的就是重新表述信息,使原文的意思出現在你自己的文章中,而不需要原文的措辭。

Original:

We do not yet understand all the ways in which brain chemicals are related to emotions and thoughts, but the salient point is that our state of mind has an immediate and direct effect on our state of body.

(Source: Siegel, B. (1986). Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. 69). New York: Harper and Row.)

Acceptable paraphrase #1:

Siegel (1986) writes that although the relationship between brain chemistry and thoughts and feelings is not fully understood, we do know that our psychological state affects our physical state.

作者運用了哪些改述方法?

使用了同義詞;

改變了句子結構;

把動詞變為被動形式;

引用來源。

Acceptable paraphrase #2:

Siegel (1986) writes that the relationship between the chemicals in the brain and our thoughts and feelings remains only partially understood. He goes on to say, however, that one thing is clear: our mental state affects our bodily state.

作者運用了哪些改述方法?

使用了同義詞;

改變了句子結構 (一個復雜的句子變成為兩個簡單句子);

把動詞變為被動形式;

改變了詞性;

引用來源。

有了以上那些方法,還是不夠的。最重要的是多練習,多去分析那些失敗的改述案例,以便我們更多地總結出自己的一套方法論,從而把論文重復率控制在最低水平。最后給大家展示兩個失敗的改述案例,你最好自己總結一下失敗在了哪里,例子如下:

Original:

We do not yet understand all the ways in which brain chemicals are related to emotions and thoughts, but the salient point is that our state of mind has an immediate and direct effect on our state of body.

(Source: Siegel, B. (1986). Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. 69). New York: Harper and Row.)

Unacceptable paraphrase #1:

Siegel (1986) writes that we still do not know all the ways in which brain chemistry is related to emotions and thoughts, but the important point is that our mental state has an immediate and direct effect on our physical state.

為何這是不可接受的改述?

作者保留了同意句子的結構。

作者只使用了幾個同義詞來改變原文的詞語,其他詞語都是在原文使用的。

雖然在開頭作者標明原文的來源,結果是抄襲。

Unacceptable paraphrase #2:

According to Siegel (1986), our mind affects our body quickly and directly, although we do not yet understand every aspect of how brain chemicals relate to emotions and thoughts.

為何這是不可接受的改述?

雖然作者改變了句子的結構,他直接使用了原文的關鍵詞;

雖然在開頭作者標明原文的來源,結果是抄襲。

以上就是全部關于Paraphrase思路與具體方法的全部內容,希望能幫助大家寫出更好的文稿。如果在外留學的您,需要各類留學作業代寫服務,請聯系我們網站客服,我們將為您提供優質、卓越、高效、靠譜、安全的代寫服務。

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2021-03-24 16:18匿名用戶
看完學到了不少Paraphrase技巧!

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