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英語寫作的誤區及解法

發布時間:2020-12-03 17:01:43 閱讀:1527 作者:致遠教育 字數:1632 字 預計閱讀時間:5分鐘
導讀:英語寫作的本質是交流思想,而不是炫技。又長又難的文章只會為讀者的閱讀理解造成麻煩,進而讓他們失去耐心,干脆不讀。僅僅是這兩個誤區,就讓我們好的思維和觀點喪失了傳播的機會,得不償失。所以,我們應該怎么辦?

英語寫作的本質是交流思想,而不是炫技。又長又難的文章只會為讀者的閱讀理解造成麻煩,進而讓他們失去耐心,干脆不讀。僅僅是這兩個誤區,就讓我們好的思維和觀點喪失了傳播的機會,得不償失。所以,我們應該怎么辦?

英語寫作

01.從寫作原則出發

首先,“be relentlessly clear”。做到絕對清晰。

還未開始寫作的時候,我們要保持腦子的清晰。從讀者的角度出發,搞清楚我們為什么要寫作,要達到什么目的,主旨是什么,讀者畫像是什么。一切無關內容,要有狠心刪除。

“When writing Berkshire Hathaway’s annual report, I pretend that I’m talking to my sisters. I have no trouble picturing them: Though highly intelligent, they are not experts in accounting or finance. They will understand plain English, but jargon may puzzle them. ”

——巴菲特

在《The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s Plain English Handbook》的前言中,巴菲特說要“ground your prose by having a particular reader in mind”。寫作時,要想象自己是寫給有一個具體的讀者,要寫得“接地氣”。

“My goal is simply to give them the information I would wish them to supply me if our positions were reversed. To succeed, I don’t need to be Shakespeare; I must, though, have a sincere desire to inform.”

——巴菲特

其次,“waste no words”。做到絕對精簡。

能用一個字表達的,就不用兩個字。能用before就不用prior to。

能用active voice主動語態就不用passive voice被動語態。

能用更強烈的動詞取代be動詞,就這么去做。

我們需要在眾多渠道中爭奪讀者們稀缺的時間和關注,必須錙銖必較。

NOT THIS:

Efficiency measures that have been implemented by the company with strong involvement of senior management have generated cost savings while at the very same time assisting in the building of a culture that is centered around the value of efficiency. We anticipate that, given this excising of unnecessary expenditures and enhanced control of other expenditures, the overall profitability of the company will be increased in the near term of up to four quaters.

[73 words]

BUT THIS:

Our senior management team has cut costs and made the company more efficient. We expect to be more profitable for the next four quarters. 

[24 words]

最后,“be plain spoken”。做到表達自然和樸實。

如何去做呢?

很簡答。像你說話那樣去寫作。

國內語文教育中的寫作,過分重視辭藻的華麗和修辭的使用,把每個人都當做作家去培養,忽視了對平實的說明文和議論文寫作能力的培養。而商業世界,最常用的其實就是這兩種體裁。辭藻的堆砌和修辭的濫用,反而會極大的傷害一篇文章的可讀性。

在寫作過程中,Sandra一直說:“What are you trying to say? Just say it.” 我一直沒懂她是什么意思,直到我看到了巴菲特對一個金融機構的商務策劃書的改寫段落。

NOT THIS:

Maturity and duration management decisions are made in the context of an intermediate maturity orientation. The maturity structure of the portfolio is adjusted in the anticipation of cyclical interest-rate changes. Such adjustments are not made in an effort to capture short-term, day-to-day movements in the market, but instead are implemented in anticipation of longer-term, secular shifts in the interest rates (i.e., shifts transcending and/or not inherent to the business cycle). Adjustments made to shorten portfolio maturity and duration are made to limit capital losses during periods when interest rates are expected to rise. Conversely, adjustments made to lengthen maturation for the portfolio’s maturity and duration strategy lies in the analysis of the U.S. and global economies, focusing on levels of real interest rates, monetary and fiscal policy actions, and cyclical indicators. (某金融機構商務策劃書段落)

Words: 136

Sentences: 5 (all passive voice)

Average sentence length: 27.2

Flesch  Reading Ease: 8.2

BUT THIS:

We will try to profit by correctly predicting future interest rates. When we have no strong opinion, we will generally hold intermediate-term bonds. But when we expect a major and sustained increase in rates, we will concentrate on short-term issues. And conversely, if we expect a major shift to lower rates, we will buy long bonds. We will focus on the big picture and won’t make moves based on short-term considerations.(巴菲特的改寫)

Words: 74

Sentences: 5 (none passive voice)

Average sentence length: 14.8

Flesch Reading Ease: 60.1

Flesch Reading Ease是一個英文的可讀性檢驗工具。從0-100,分數越高代表可讀性越高。結合上面兩段的評分和我們的觀感,可以很好地反映出文本的易讀性對吸引注意力的影響程度。

英語寫作

02.從文章結構出發

Better Business Writing這本書介紹了一個有趣的角色扮演框架:MACJ。這四個字母分別是Madman, Architect, Carpenter, 和Judge四個單詞的首字母。它講究在寫作的時候,要按順序分別扮演這四種不同的角色。每扮演一個特定角色,就只做好角色范圍內的事情。

第一步,收集素材,整合觀點,應該像madman。只需要追求思維的活躍,觀點的新穎,連邏輯都不需考慮。天馬行空,自由自在,把想說想寫的原原本本地扔在紙上/word文檔上。

第二步,思考文章結構,重點考慮邏輯合理性。從第一步中得到的觀點和素材中,選取不超過三個主要的觀點進行闡述。用三句完整的句子表達文章的主要觀點,并對這些觀點進行排序。若有提及時間,即按時間順序撰寫。若未提及時間,按邏輯順序,并永遠把最重要的觀點寫在最前面。

第三步,做一個老老實實的工匠。給自己定時,以最快的速度把文章寫完。這一步一定要記得不猶豫不回顧不修改,一股腦兒把文章的主體寫完。

第四步,帶上法官的帽子,嚴苛地篩選與主題符合的內容,對車轱轆話、不直接相關的句子和修辭,毫無情面地刪掉。是我們字斟句酌,以及修改文法、句式、標點符號的時間。

使用這一框架的重中之重是要記得在一個時間段內,只扮演一個角色。這個方法,可以把大塊的寫作壓力拆分成一個一個的小塊任務。既有助于我們開始寫作,避免writer’s block(作家寫不出東西來的心理阻滯感),還有利于拆分重點,各個擊破。

結語:

天馬行空的寫作當然是暢快的。但沒有約束就沒有自由。我當然不會因為兩次被要求重寫而放棄英文寫作,相反,我會遵守我所學到的三個原則:be relentlessly clear, waste no words, 和be plain spoken,通過扮演Madman, Architect, Carpenter, 和Judge這四個不同角色,約束自己,寫出可讀性更強的文章來。

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