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Topic Sentence怎么寫?附Topic Sentence例句

發布時間:2021-06-17 13:36:32 閱讀:10580 作者:致遠教育 字數:2393 字 預計閱讀時間:7分鐘
導讀:主題句(TopicSentence)就是一個段落的主要思想或中心思想(MainIdea)。它不僅僅向讀者們展示著一個段落的主要話題內容,同時也限定了該段落所能談及到的某個特定內容。那么主題句(TopicSentence)怎么寫呢?

留學生如若想把Essay寫好,最起碼要寫好每一篇Essy中的每一個段落。而每一個Essay寫作的段落,如同一個漢堡包完整的結構一樣,有topic sentence和closing sentence/concluding sentence進行頭尾呼應,而中間的details(supporting sentences)則構成了該漢堡包的個中滋味。本文致遠教育小編為大家分享主題句topic sentence寫法。

1.什么是主題句(Topic Sentence)?

|The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one specific area that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The part of the topic sentence that announces the specific area to be discussed is called the controlling idea. 

|The topic names the subject of the paragraph. The controlling idea limits or controls the topic to a specific area that you can discuss in the space of a single paragraph.

根據Writing Academic English這本書籍介紹,所謂“主題句”(topic sentence)就是一個段落的主要思想或中心思想(main idea)。它不僅僅向讀者們展示著一個段落的主要話題內容,同時也限定了該段落所能談及到的某個特定內容。而即將會被探討的特定內容,則被稱為“controlling idea”。

讓我們來看一段書籍中所給出的段落:

Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistance to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was made 25 centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications, such as photography and dentistry. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts’ suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection when they go outside spaceships in space. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

在這個段落中,第一句話就是整個段落的“topic sentence”。而其具體探討的“topic”和“controlling idea”則以下所示:

e.g., Gold (TOPIC), a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics(CONTROLLING IDEA).

除了上文所給出的段落中的主題句以外,以下是給出了清楚的topic和controlling idea的其他主題句案例:

e.g., Convenience foods (TOPIC) are easy to prepare(CONTROLLING IDEA).

通過“Convenience foods are easy to prepare.”這一個主題句,讀者們能夠快速了解該段落將會重點探討準備方便食品這件事情是有多么地簡單,并且還會可能讀到一些相關的例子(如canned soup罐頭湯,frozen dinner冷凍餐等。

e.g., Immigrants have contributed many delicious foods (CONTROLLING IDEA) to U.S. cuisine (TOPIC).

通過“Immigrants have contributed many delicious foods to U.S. cuisine.”這一個主題句,讀者們會期望閱讀到在美國流行的不同種族的食品(如tacos, egg rolls, sushi, baklava, pizza等等)。

另外,在為一個主題句寫“controlling idea”的時候,請要注意它們之間的相關性。比如以下這一個主題句中,包含了對于一個段落彼此之間并無關系的ideas:

× too many ideas|Indie films are characterized by experimental techniques, low production costs, and provocative themes.

針對這種一個主題句包含了過多沒有相互關系的ideas,建議將這些ideas分別放入三個不同的段落(甚至更多段落),然后對這三者進行仔細全面地解析。那么,被拆分后的ideas則可以在各自的段落中,重新擁有一個專屬于它有關的主題句。請參考以下改良部分:

√ revised| Independent films are characterized by experimental techniques. 

主題句(Topic Sentence)的作用

2.主題句(Topic Sentence)的作用

|A topic sentence is the most important sentence in a paragraph. It briefly indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss. For this reason, the topic sentence is a helpful guide to both the writer and the reader. The writer can see what information is to include (and what information to exclude). The reader can see what the paragraph is going to be about and is therefore better prepared to understand it. 

根據Writing Academic English書籍介紹,主題句(topic sentence)可以被認為是一個段落中最重要的信息。它簡要表明了該段落即將要探討的信息。也正是因為此原因,主題句成了對作者和讀者均為有助的向導。通過主題句,作者可以明白自己即將要在一個段落中包含(或者不能包含)哪些信息。而讀者也可以明白自己即將將會在一個段落中了解哪些信息,從而做出了更好的心理準備去了解這些信息。

比如前文中探討gold的那篇文章的主題句,它能夠提醒讀者們去關注本段將會探討關于黃金的兩個特性(two important characteristics)。

e.g., Gold (TOPIC), a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics(CONTROLLING IDEA).

3.主題句(Topic Sentence)三大注意事項

那么,關于“主題句”,有什么重要的注意事項呢?根據書籍介紹,一共包含了以下三大注意事項:

3.1 A topic sentence is a complete sentence.

首先,“主題句”必須是一個完整的句子。這意味著在“主題句”中,它至少包含了一個主語和一個謂語動詞。比如以下三組均為錯誤的“主題句”,因為它們缺失了動詞:

1)× Diving on freeways. 

2)× How to register for college classes. 

3)× The rise of indie films. 

(備注:indie films means “independent films; films not made in or by Hollywood studios”,翻譯為“非主流的電影”)

3.2 A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea.

其次,“主題句”得包含了一個段落中所要探討的主題,和該主題之下相關的特定內容。比如以下三組均為合格的“主題句”案例:

1)  √ Driving on freeways (TOPIC) requires skill and alertness(CONTROLLING IDEA).

2)  √ Registering for college classes (TOPIC) can be a frustrating experience for new students (CONTROLLING IDEA).

3)  √ The rise of indie films (TOPIC) is due to several factors (CONTROLLING IDEA).

3. 3 A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph because it gives only the main idea. It does not give any specific details.

再者,“主題句”是一個段落中最概括性(或理解為最泛泛而談)的部分,因為它只給出了該段落中的中心思想,它并無給出任何具體細節。

主題句,就好比是一個餐廳菜單上的某一道菜。當你在餐廳點菜的時候,你會更想要了解一道菜的名稱而非僅僅只是知道是“肉”、“湯”還是“沙拉”。你會想知道它大概是什么類型的沙拉。比如是土豆沙拉(Potato salad)還是水果沙拉(Fruit salad)?換言之,主題句不能過于廣泛到成為一個并不清晰的概念(過于廣泛的大類別),是一個清晰的概括性的概念(大概是什么類型)。

主題句(Topic Sentence)寫作

當然,當你點菜的時候,你也并非會想要知道一道菜里的所有配料。那么同樣地,讀者們會想知道一個段落中大概會探討了什么內容,但是他們并不會想在第一個句子中,就知道本段所有的細節。否則,如果一個段落首句都包含了所有細節,讀者又有何意義繼續讀接下來的內容呢?況且,細節都全堆積在首句了,那么作者又還能在該段落剩余部分寫啥呢?

接下來,我們來看看三組不同的Topic Sentence例句,向各位展示什么是恰當的主題句寫法,而什么又是過于廣泛(too general)或者過于具體(too specific)的主題句寫法。

Topic Sentence例句1: The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious. (good topic sentence)

Topic Sentence例句2: The slang expression so long (meaning “good-bye”) is probably a corruption of the Arabic salaam. (too specific)

Topic Sentence例句3: English has been influenced by other languages. (too general)

4.主題句(Topic Sentence)的恰當位置

那么,在了解了“主題句”的基本寫法之后,一般我們會將其放在哪里呢?

|The topic sentence is usually (but not always) the first sentence in a paragraph. Experienced writers sometimes put topic sentences in other locations, but the best spot is usually right at the beginning. 

根據Writing Academic English書籍介紹,“主題句”通常出現在一個段落之首。盡管部分富有經驗的作者們有時候把主題句放在一個段落的其他位置,但是我們還是不得不承認“主題句”的最佳位置在于段落之首。要知道,對于已經適應于英語寫作方式的讀者們,他們通常在一開始閱讀段落的時候,就會想盡快知道該段落的主要內容是什么。

正如剛才所提及過的,“主題句”也有可能出現在其他的位置。而“主題句”有時候會出現在一個段落最結尾處。在這種情況下,該段落會時常以一系列的例子來開頭,或者以一系列的事實來開頭,隨后該段落結尾處的主題句,則是針對這一系列事實的總結。

5.總結

在學習完畢以上所有關于“主題句”的內容后,我們在這里學習與“主題句”有關的終極版總結:

| When you write a topic sentence, remember these three points:

A topic sentence must be a complete sentence, with a subject and a verb.

A topic sentence should be neither too general nor too specific. If it is too general, the reader cannot tell exactly what the paragraph is going to discuss. If it is too specific, the writer will not have anything to write about in the rest of the paragraph.

A topic sentence should not have unrelated controlling ideas.

以上就是本文關于主題句(Topic Sentence)寫作的全部內容,歡迎大家閱讀。如果需要各類留學作業代寫服務,請咨詢網站客服。

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