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Paraphrase怎么做?Paraphrase技巧總結

發布時間:2021-07-08 14:59:17 閱讀:3189 作者:致遠教育 字數:1521 字 預計閱讀時間:5分鐘
導讀:釋義,paraphrase,由兩個詞根para(modifying)和phrase(tell)拼接而成,意思就是用自己的話再現原文的意思(但是不能包含自己的觀點)。也就是一種同義轉譯,用詞不同,但所表達的意思相同。那么Paraphrase怎么做?本文致遠教育小編為大家總結P...

在學術論文撰寫過程中,不可避免要提及或者用到其他人的思想、觀點或者數據,為了避免涉嫌抄襲,我們可以采用對原文加引號引用、釋義改寫(paraphrase),或者總結(summarize)、再標明出處的方式告訴讀者文獻來源。

paraphrase怎么做?paraphrase技巧總結

在引用、釋義和總結這三種方式里面,釋義對于很多學生來說,可能是比較難的一種。釋義,paraphrase,由兩個詞根para (modifying)和phrase (tell)拼接而成,意思就是用自己的話再現原文的意思(但是不能包含自己的觀點)。也就是一種同義轉譯,用詞不同,但所表達的意思相同。那么Paraphrase怎么做?本文致遠教育小編為大家總結Paraphrase技巧。

需要注意的是,在釋義的時候,強調要用自己的語言來寫,因此首先要盡量避免使用原文的詞匯和短語;同時,釋義也不僅僅是替換單詞和短語,更要改變原文的結構,包括句子結構和語篇結構。

牛津大學官網在對剽竊的定義里面,將不合格的釋義同樣也看作是剽竊的一種。

Paraphrasing the work of others by altering a few words and changing their order, or by closely following the structure of their argument, is plagiarism if you do not give due acknowledgement to the author whose work you are using. A passing reference to the original author in your own text may not be enough; you must ensure that you do not create the misleading impression that the paraphrased wording or the sequence of ideas are entirely your own. 

如果你沒有對所使用著作的作者給予應有的承認,通過改變一些單詞和順序,或者高度模仿別人論點的結構來進行釋義,就是剽竊。在你自己的文本中僅僅提及原作者可能是不夠的;你必須確保讓人誤以為改寫的措辭或思路的順序完全是你自己的。

Paraphrase技巧總結

如果你的英文足夠好,就算寫學術論文也不需要花太大的力氣,那么直接將要釋義的文字轉化成你自己的文字應該也不難。但是如果在英文寫作方面有所欠缺,或者完全不明白如何釋義,下面的方法應該還是值得借鑒的。

1) 閱讀理解原文。

2) 一一列舉主要觀點。

a.找到重要的觀點——關鍵詞/短語.

b.找到這些關鍵詞/短語的替換詞或同義詞。專業詞匯與常用詞匯不需要替換。

3) 改變原文的組織和結構 (不要使用原來的句子結構)。

a.確定詞匯/想法之間的意義關系,比如因果關系、總分關系等等。

b.用不同的方式表達這些關系。

c.改變原文的語法,比如將名詞改為動詞、形容詞改為副詞、主動語態改為被動語態、分解長句、合并短句等等。

4) 把主要觀點改寫成完整的句子,再把各個句子合并成連續的文字。

5) 檢查。

a.確保意思和原文相同,不要強調任何一點,也不要添加自己的想法或觀點。

b.確保長度與原文大致相同。

c.要有自己的風格。

d.標明出處。

看下面的例子:

It has long been known that Cairo is the most populous city on earth, but no-one knew exactly how populous it was until last month.

Paraphrase:

Although Cairo has been the world's most heavily populated city for many years, the precise population was not known until four weeks ago.

對比前后兩個版本,我們很容易發現,詞匯上很明顯發生了很大的改變。在語法上,原文的并列句變成了帶一個原因狀語從句的主從復合句;而且前半句的被動語態變成了主動語態,后半句的主動語態則變成了被動語態。

再看下面一段文字:

Statements that seem complimentary in one context may be inappropriate in another. For example, women in business are usually uncomfortable if male colleagues or superiors compliment them on their appearance: the comments suggest that the women are being treated as visual decoration rather than as contributing workers.

Paraphrase A:

Words or expressions which appear favorable in one situation might be improper in a different situation. For instance, employed females are often uneasy when they are given positive comments on their looks. These remarks imply that the females are being viewed as adornment instead of as productive employees (Locker,2003).

這一段paraphrase和原文比,詞匯的替換做得很好,但也僅止于此,所以,不算是一篇合格的paraphrase。首先,它的結構過于接近原文,不管是句子還是語篇;其次,去掉了原文中對于有可能將女性看成花瓶的限定人male colleagues or superiors,所以意思出現了偏差。再看一個版本:

Paraphrase B:

Some statements may be inappropriate in one context, even though they are complimentary in another. Compliments by male colleagues or superiors regarding a female coworker’s appearance, for example, often make the woman feel uncomfortable. Instead of treating the women as contributing workers, men obviously think of them as visual decoration (Locker, 2003).

很明顯,這個釋義在改變句子結構方面做得更好,但是用了太多原文中的詞。此外,它也出現了意思偏差的情況,men obviously think of… (人們顯然認為…)肯定是原文沒有的,原文只是說suggest;觀點的順序也和原文相同。

Paraphrase C:

Women may feel uneasy upon receiving ordinarily positive comments on their appearance from male coworkers or supervisors. To these women, the remarks carry an implied meaning: instead of being thought of as productive employees, they are actually being viewed as just a pretty part of the atmosphere. Depending on the situation, words or expressions which appear favorable may actually be unsuitable in a conversation (Locker, 2003).

這一篇無疑是最好的。這個釋義是最有效的。除了改變詞匯和句子結構外,它還包括了所有要點,保留了原文的意思。它也改變了觀點的順序。

通過分析上述的三篇paraphrase,我們應該很清楚什么樣的paraphrase才是合格、有效的。知道了標準,按照這個標準思考、寫作,寫出好的paraphrase才有可能。

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