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MIT大學學術誠信——引用常識

發布時間:2021-09-11 10:52:27 閱讀:645 作者:致遠教育 字數:2013 字 預計閱讀時間:6分鐘
導讀:MIT大學學術誠信關于常識的文章,介紹了常識的定義和歸類,給出了確定一條信息是否為常識的方法,什么情況下可以認定為不是常識,并給出了一些屬于常識和非常識的具體的例子。當你(論文中)所包含的信息是“常識”時,你不必引用你的來源,但是什么是常識呢?

MIT大學學術誠信關于常識的文章,介紹了常識的定義和歸類,給出了確定一條信息是否為常識的方法,什么情況下可以認定為不是常識,并給出了一些屬于常識和非常識的具體的例子。該文尤其指出,一些信息是相對的,對一些讀者是常識,而對另外一些讀者則不是常識。據此該文強調,(為了避免被視為剽竊)對于自己不確定是否為常數的信息,應按非常識引用。本文是原文的翻譯,為了不丟失原意,每段翻譯附上原文。——編者

MIT大學校園

你可能聽過有人說,當你(論文中)所包含的信息是“常識”時,你不必引用你的來源,但是什么是常識呢?

You may have heard people say that you do not have to cite your source when the information you include is “common knowledge.” But what is common knowledge? 

廣義地說,常識是指普通受過教育的讀者不必查找就可以接受的可靠信息。這包括以下四種情況:

Broadly speaking, common knowledge refers to information that the average, educated reader would accept as reliable without having to look it up. This includes: 

    1.大多數人都知道的信息,比如水在華氏32度(零攝氏度)結冰,或者巴拉克 奧巴馬是第一位當選(美國)總統的混血美國人。

    Information that most people know, such as that water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit or that Barack Obama was the first American of mixed race to be elected president. 

    2.一個文化或民族團體共享的信息,如一個國家歷史上著名的英雄或事件的名字。

    Information shared by a cultural or national group, such as the names of famous heroes or events in the nation’s history that are remembered and celebrated.

    3.由某一領域的成員共享的知識,如晶體固體的波長輻射衍射的必要條件是由布拉格定律給出的。

    Knowledge shared by members of a certain field, such as the fact that the necessary condition for diffraction of radiation of wavelength from a crystalline solid is given by Bragg’s law.

    4.然而,在一種文化、民族、學科或同齡人群體中可能是常識的東西,在另一種文化、民族、學術學科或同齡人群體中可能不是常識。

    However, what may be common knowledge in one culture, nation, academic discipline or peer group may not be common knowledge in another.

如何確定我使用的信息是否是常識?

How do I determine if the information I am using is common knowledge?

為了幫助您決定信息是否可以被視為常識,可問自己以下三個問題:

To help you decide whether information can be considered common knowledge, ask yourself: 

1.誰是我的聽眾或讀者?Who is my audience? 

2.我能假設他們已經知道了什么?What can I assume they already know?

3.我會被問到我從哪里得到的信息嗎?Will I be asked where I obtained my information? 

下面給出三個例子:Some examples:

1).對阿斯伯格綜合癥癥狀的描述需要在一般的寫作課上被引用,但對于心理學研究生的讀者來說,可能不需要引用。

A description of the symptoms of Asperger’s Syndrome would need to be cited for a composition in a general writing class but probably not need citation for an audience of graduate students in psychology.

2).一組經濟學家會理解一篇關于公允價值會計實踐的參考文獻,但面向非專家聽眾時需要引用。

A reference to the practice of fair value accounting would be understood by a group of economists, but would need citation to an audience of non-experts.

3).聲稱24%的18歲以下小孩是由單生母親照顧時,需要引用文獻,因為對于具有平均水平的讀者,他們想知道數字是從哪里獲得的。

A statement reporting that 24% of children under the age of 18 live in   households headed by single mothers would need to be cited.  This is information that would not be known to the average reader, who would want to know where the figure was obtained.

最好的建議是:當有疑問時,引用你的消息來源。The best advice is: When in doubt, cite your source.

MIT大學教學樓

以下哪項陳述可以被視為常識?哪些需要引用參考文獻?

Which of the following statements would be considered common knowledge?  Which would need to be cited?

1.大爆炸理論假設宇宙在數十億年前從一次巨大的爆炸開始。

The Big Bang theory posits that the universe began billions of years ago with an enormous explosion.

2.“大爆炸”這個詞是由英國天文學家弗雷德·霍伊爾爵士發明的?;粢翣枺ū緛恚┯眠@個詞來嘲弄這個他不同意的理論。

The phrase “Big Bang” was coined by Sir Fred Hoyle, an English astronomer.  Hoyle used the term to mock the theory, which he disagreed with. 

3.根據大爆炸模型,最初的爆炸是在一個無限熱的稠密中心開始膨脹,產生最終形成我們的宇宙的粒子時產生的。

According to the Big Bang model, the initial explosion was produced when an infinitely hot, dense center referred to as a singularity, began to expand, giving rise to the particles that eventually formed into our universe.

聲明#1是常識——大爆炸理論在科學家中被廣泛接受,這個術語經常在日常用語中使用。

Statement #1 is common knowledge – the Big Bang theory is widely accepted among scientists and the term is used regularly in everyday speech. 

聲明#2不能當常識,需要引用文獻——這個信息非常具體,甚至可能是一些物理學家所不知道的。

Statement #2 needs citation; this information is very specific and may even be unknown to some physicists.

聲明#3對物理界的學生讀者不需要引用,但需要在論文中為非專家讀者引用。

Statement #3 would not need citation to an audience of physics students but would need citation in a paper for a non-expert audience.

MIT大學寫作常識

什么不是常識?

What is not Common Knowledge

1.由您或其他人生成的數據集。Datasets generated by you or others.

2.來自諸如美國人口普查局和勞工統計局等來源的統計數據。Statistics obtained from sources such as the US Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

3.他人所做的研究的參考文獻。References to studies done by others.

4.使用特定日期、數字或事實時,除非讀者參與了研究,否則讀者是不會知道的,從而不能當做常識。Reference to specific dates, numbers, or facts the reader would not know unless s/he had done the research.

需要引用的三個陳述例子-每一個都是指其他人所做的工作、統計數據或一般讀者不知道的具體信息:

Examples of statements that need citation - each refers to work done by others, statistics, or specific information that would not be known by the average reader:

1 研究人員發現,用于清理石油泄漏的分散劑,當空氣中這些分散劑的顆粒與原油結合并被吸入時,會導致肺損傷。

Researchers have found that dispersants utilized to clean up oil spills can lead to lung damage when airborne particles of these dispersants combine with crude oil and are inhaled.

(Source: Wang, H., Shi, YL, Major, D. and Yang, HL (2012, August).  Lung epithelial cell death induced by oil-dispersant mixtures. Toxicology in Vitro, 26, 5, 746-751.  doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.03.011)

2 布魯金斯研究所(Brookings Institute)學者最近進行的一項研究發現,2000年至2010年,美國貧困人口增加了1230萬,因此到2010年底,15%的人口生活在貧困線以下。

A recent study done by scholars at the Brookings Institute found that the number of people living in poverty in America grew by 12.3 million between 2000 and 2010, so that by the end of 2010, 15% of the population was living under the poverty line. 

(Source:  Kneebone, E., C. Nadeau and Berube, A.  (2011, November 3).  The re-emergence of concentrated poverty:  metropolitan trends in the 2000s.  Brookings Metropolitan Opportunity Series. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2011/11/03-poverty-kneebone-nadeau-berube.)

3 不同聚合度的二元聚合物共混物的每個位置的混合能量可以用Flory-Huggins方程來描述。

The energy of mixing per site for a binary polymer blend with differing degrees of polymerization can be described through the Flory-Huggins equation.

(Source:  Flory, P.J. (1953).  Principles of Polymer Chemistry.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.)

注:這個方程式是大分子結構的熱力學所特有的,并不是許多科學家或工程師的常識?;谶@些原因,他們需要被引用。

Note: This equation is specific to the thermodynamics of macromolecular structures and would not be considered common knowledge by many scientists or engineers. For these reasons, they need to be cited.

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